1972 rapid creek flood
On June 9–10, 1972, extremely heavy rains over the eastern Black Hills of South Dakota produced record floods on Rapid Creek and other streams in the area. Nearly 15 inches (380 mm) of rain fell in about six hours near Nemo, and more than 10 inches (250 mm) of rain fell over an area of 60 square miles (160 km2).
According to the Red Cross, the resulting peak floods (which occurred after dark) left 238 people dead and 3,057 people injured. Total property destruction was estimated in excess of $160 million (about $964 million in 2021 dollars), which included 1,335 homes and 5,000 automobiles that were destroyed.
Runoff from this storm produced record floods (highest peak flows recorded) along Battle, Spring, Rapid, and Box Elder creeks. Smaller floods also occurred along Elk and Bear Butte creeks. Canyon Lake Dam, on the west side of Rapid City, broke the night of the flood, unleashing a wall of water down the creek.
The 1972 flooding has an estimated recurrence interval of 500 years, which means that a flood of this magnitude will occur on average once every 500 years. Every year there is a 0.2 percent chance (1 in 500) of a similar event occurring.
To prevent similar damage, the city has prohibited residential and business construction on its flood plain. Today the flood plain is used for civic functions such as golf courses, parks, sports arenas, and arboretums, based mostly on the landscape and temporary use by people.
In 2007, the Rapid City Public Library created a 1972 Flood digital archive that collects survivors’ stories, photos and news accounts of the flood. The Journey Museum has an interactive display on the 1972 flood; this is an ongoing project to give future generations the best idea of how the people were affected and what changes the city made as a result of the major losses of life and property.
As of the census of 2000, there were 59,607 people, 23,969 households, and 15,220 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,336.7 people per square mile (516.1/km2). There were 25,096 housing units at an average density of 562.
8 per square mile (217.3/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 84.33% White, 0.97% African American, 10.14% Native American, 1.
0% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.73% from other races, and 2.77% from two or more races.Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.77% of the population.
There were 23,969 households, out of which 31.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.7% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.5% were non-families. 29.4% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.
In the city, the population was spread out, with 25.3% under the age of 18, 11.8% from 18 to 24, 28.7% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, and 13.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.2 males.
As of 2000 the median income for a household in the city was $35,978, and the median income for a family was $44,818. Males had a median income of $30,985 versus $21,913 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,445. About 9.
As of the census of 2021, there were 67,956 people, 28,586 households, and 16,957 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,226.4 inhabitants per square mile (473.
5/km2). There were 30,254 housing units at an average density of 546.0 per square mile (210.8/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 80.4% White, 1.1% African American, 12.4% Native American, 1.
There were 28,586 households, of which 29.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.2% were married couples living together, 13.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.1% had a male householder with no wife present, and 40.
The median age in the city was 35.6 years. 23.9% of residents were under the age of 18; 10.6% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 25.7% were from 25 to 44; 25% were from 45 to 64; and 14.5% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49.5% male and 50.5% female.
Art and culture
Because of the importance of tourism in the area, and its extensive market area, Rapid City has many cultural resources usually found only in much larger urban areas. Among these are:
Rapid City has invested in public sculptures, which are on display in many parts of the city. The most visible is «The City of Presidents», a series of life-sized bronze statues representing each former President of the United States.
The statues are located on street corners in the downtown area. Five South Dakota artists created the statues: Edward E. Hlavka, Lee Leuning, John Lopez, James Michael Maher, and James Van Nuys. The first 42 statues were erected via private donations over a ten-year period between 2000 and 2021.
|U.S. Decennial Census|
The Rapid City Public Library is a major resource for education.
Rapid City institutions of higher education include the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Oglala Lakota College’s He Sapa College Center, Black Hills State University — Rapid City University Center (includes classes and degrees through five other South Dakota post-secondary Institutions)
Black Hills State University is located in nearby Spearfish and offers several classes in Rapid City. A South Dakota State University nurse training program is based in Rapid City.
In 2021, 26.6 percent of Rapid City residents 25 years or over had earned a bachelor’s degree or higher. This is on par with the average educational attainment in the United States.
The local public schools fall under the Rapid City Area Schoolsschool district. There are three high schools within the district: Central, Stevens and the newly renovated Rapid City High School, which also houses the Performing Arts Center.
The middle schools include East, North, South, Southwest, and West. There are 16 elementary schools within the district. These are Black Hawk, Canyon Lake, Corral Drive, General Beadle, Grandview, Horace Mann, Kibben Kuster, Knollwood Heights, Meadowbrook, Pinedale, Rapid Valley, Robbinsdale, South Canyon, South Park, Valley View, and Woodrow Wilson.
There are also various private schools in Rapid City. The city has four Christian high schools including Saint Thomas More, Rapid City Christian High School, Liberty Baptist Academy, and Open Bible Christian School. Rapid City also has various private grade schools including St. Paul’s Lutheran School of the WELS.
Rapid City is a major healthcare center for a five-state region, centered around Monument Health Rapid City Hospital, which operates under the not-for-profit parent company Monument Health, a member of The Mayo Clinic Care Network, Monument Health continues to operate independently and is governed by a volunteer board of directors.
Monument Health Rapid City Hospital has the busiest Emergency Department in South Dakota with 57,000 visits annually, they are a certified level 2 Trauma Center. Monument Health offers care in 33 medical specialties and serves 20 communities across western South Dakota and in eastern Wyoming.
With over 4,500 physicians and caregivers, Monument Health consists of 5 hospitals, 8 specialty and surgical centers and more than 40 medical clinics and health care service centers. In 2021 Monument Health Rapid City Hospital received recognition as one of «America’s Best 250 Hospitals for Clinical Excellence» by Healthgrades, only 258 hospitals in the United States received the prestigious award, which equals out to be just 5% of hospitals in the entire country.
There are several Urgent Care facilities in Rapid City, mainly operated by Monument Health and private for-profit groups. Monument Health has the only nationally accredited Urgent Care centers in the entire state of South Dakota.
Other independent, for-profit medical facilities have been established in the area, centered around Black Hills Surgical Hospital, which is majority owned (54.2% ownership) by Medical Facilities Corporation, a for-profit Canadian holdings company, they trade on the Toronto Stock Exchange under the symbol DR.
Black Hills Neurosurgery and spine, Black Hills Orthopedics, Ballard Gynecology, ProMotion Physical Therapy, Rapid City Medical Center, Rushmore OB/GYN, The Rehab Doctors and West River ENT are all either owner by, operated or affiliated with Black Hills Surgical Hospital and for-profit parent company MFC.
Specialized government health facilities include the Indian Health Service’s Oyate Health Center (formerly Sioux San Hospital), which provides care to the Native American community, and Veterans Affairs hospitals located nearby at Fort Meade and Hot Springs, South Dakota. The VA also has a small, outpatient clinic in Rapid City.
Emergency medical services (EMS) are provided by the Rapid City Fire Department. Emergency medical transportation by rotor and fixed wing aircraft is provided by Black Hills Life Flight, operated by Air Methods Corp. based in Denver, Colorado, and MARC (Medical Air Rescue Company)
This is also the location of a number of non-profit public health organizations that engage in survey and clinic research, epidemiology, and area-based health promotion disease prevention. The Health Education and Promotion Council and Black Hills Center for American Indian Health are two notable non-profit organizations.
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- KOTA-TV 3 ABC, 3.2 Circle, 3.3 True Crime Network (ATSC 7)
- KEVN-LD 7 Fox (ATSC 23)
- KBHE-TV 9 PBS, 9.2 World Channel, 9.3 Create, 9.4 PBS Kids (ATSC 26)
- KCLO-TV 15 CBS, 15.2 CW, 15.3 Ion Television, 15.4 Court TV Mystery (ATSC 16)
- KNBN 21 NBC, 21.2 MyNetworkTV
- KHME 23 MeTV, 23.2 Heroes & Icons, 23.3 Start TV, 23.4 Decades
- KRPC-LP 33 Heartland, 33.2 Retro TV, 33.3 Rev’n, 33.4 Action Channel, 33.5 The Family Channel
Understanding rapid urbanisation
A key determinant of rampant urban sprawl – especially in North America, where it is a particularly serious problem – has been the existence of cheap oil. When oil prices reached record highs in 2008 and exacerbated the global economic crisis, the people who travelled furthest tended to be the first to default on their mortgage payments.
As their fuel expenses for travelling to work and school rocketed, so their capacity to afford urban sprawl drastically diminished. Visiting Detroit a few weeks ago, I found that of the city’s 300,000 buildings, 70,000 currently stand empty – and mostly derelict.
From the 1960s onwards, the city built more and more ring roads to suburbanise the middle and upper classes into the surrounding countryside – and in the process bankrupted Detroit’s urban core, leaving it unable to manage the economic impact of the closure of its once-giant car factories.
Indeed, most of the extra 2.5 billion people who will be living in urban areas by 2050 will be in cities of the global south, in particular in Asia and Africa; 37% of all future urban growth is expected to take place in only three countries: China, India and Nigeria.
Other than in China, rapid urbanisation in these developing counties has resulted in an explosion of informal urban settlements, or slums. In India, millions of slum-dwellers live within the core urban areas, creating the fairly unique Indian phenomenon of neighbourhoods where the urban poor and middle class live together.
By contrast, in African cities – where 62% of all urbanites are in slums – the majority of slum-dwellers live in expanding urban settlements on the peripheries of cities. With Africa’s urban population (currently around 400 million people) expected to triple to 1.
But it’s not happening like this everywhere. Take Ethiopia, an east African country of 99 million people with one of the fastest growing economies in the world. While 80% of the population is still rural, urbanisation is accelerating fast, placing huge pressures on the capital, Addis Ababa.
Government investments have turned this city into a massive building site. Endless cranes are silhouetted against the African sky as a huge number of relatively high-rise buildings emerge in the urban core.
At the same time, with funds and expertise provided by the Chinese, a light-rail system has been built that runs across the city – a remarkable feat in a city where 80% of the population lives in slums. This creates incentives for the middle class to live in high-density, multi-storey apartments that are starting to spring up around the stations – reducing the need to subsidise longer-distance, road-based travel by private car.
Coupled with the building of multi-storey, subsidised housing for the urban poor (some located close to transit nodes), the result is that Addis Ababa is densifying, setting an example for what is possible in other cities facing similar challenges.
Johannesburg, the largest city in South Africa, provides a very different – but also promising – case study. Under apartheid, the urban poor were forcibly relocated into outer-city settlements – often located between five and 40km from the urban periphery. Many of these turned into slums as population numbers far exceeded what these settlements were designed to accommodate.
After democratisation in 1994, there was a major inward flow of people into the urban core that could not be accommodated, despite a massive housing construction programme. Land invasions took place in all South African cities, including on inner-city land.
Johannesburg’s metropolitan government realised it could not build an integrated city by moving millions of people around, because so many already lived in formal townships. Instead, it identified a set of strategically located urban development hotspots, and then invested in mass transit services to link them together.
The aim is to rapidly intensify job and residential densities in these development hotspots, thus increasing the number of people who can access publicly funded mass-transit services.
This will increase average densities over time, and integrate the city via transit rather than expensive residential relocations. This, coupled with strategies to upgrade informal settlements rather than building new houses on the peripheries, has contributed significantly to enhancing densification, rather than encouraging the sprawl promoted by Johannesburg’s property developers and banks since 1994.
There is no doubt that sprawling, de-densifying cities are a major threat to the future sustainability of the planet. Neither the UN’s sustainable development goals nor the Paris agreement’s climate targets will be achieved if this challenge is not addressed – but it means going up against property developers who tend to prefer greenfield developments on the peripheries to the complexities of brownfield regeneration.
What are the rapid movements and growth of cities? — answers
Рапид-Сити держит рекорд по максимальному перепаду температур: 10 января 1911 года температура упала на 27 °C за 5 минут (с 16 °C до -11 °C).
|Абсолютный максимум, °C||24,4||23,8||28,3||33,8||36,6||42,7||43,8||41,6||40,0||35,5||28,3||23,8||43,8|
|Средний максимум, °C||2,8||4,2||8,8||14,6||19,8||25,3||30,6||30,2||24,2||16,3||8,3||2,6||15,6|
|Средняя температура, °C||−3,7||−2,5||2,0||7,3||12,8||18,1||22,6||22,1||16,0||8,8||1,5||−3,8||8,4|
|Средний минимум, °C||−10,3||−9,1||−4,8||0,0||5,8||10,8||14,7||13,8||7,9||1,3||−5,3||−10,3||1,2|
|Абсолютный минимум, °C||−32,7||−35||−29,4||−17,2||−7,7||−0,5||3,8||3,3||−7,7||−18,8||−28,3||−34,4||−35|
|Норма осадков, мм||7||11||23||47||81||64||46||40||32||33||13||8||410|
Some people say that the growth of cities is always harmful for the environment, whereas others believe that there are new ecological projects for cities that are not harmful at all.
In my opinion the growth of cities is not always harmful for nature. First of all, newer technologies allow people to build cities without polluting the environment. For example, there are a lot of eco-projects that make the environment even better. Secondly, nowadays cars, the most harmful elements of a city, have become much less polluting. For instance, there are many hybrids – gasoline cars that work partly on solar energy or electricity. Eco-friendly towns are developing more and more. Moreover, people have also begun to better care about nature.
At the same time there are people who think the continuing growth of is harmful. They see that the water is polluted in many cities. Cities produce a lot of waste products. In some countries people cannot drink tap water anymore. The air in big cities is very polluted as well. A lot of forests are being cut to let big cities grow.
I cannot agree with the opinion mentioned above for a particular reason. The situation is changing now and it is getting better and better. People have realized its harmfulness a long time ago and have been working hard to make our existence on earth as harmless as it possible.
In conclusion, I would like to say that the ecological planning of cities has come a long way. It started moving in a different direction, namely it has become more eco-friendly. I strongly believe that eventually we will learn to build big cities that are completely harmless to the environment.
Read by Neil Geitz