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1Risk Factors, Determinants, and Prevention

Before focusing exclusively on HIV/AIDS-related issues, the first two paragraphs of this section briefly consider the spectrum of disease and mortality globally. According to The World Health Report 2002 published by the WHO, the leading causes of death in high-mortality “developing” societies (e.g.

, Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, Asia) are communicable diseases and maternal and child conditions, including HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, respiratory infections, and childhood and maternal undernutrition. In highly “developed” countries (e.g.

, North America, Western Europe, Pacific Rim), the leading causes of death are noncommunicable diseases, including various forms of cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and psychiatric disorders. In low-mortality developing countries (e.g., Middle East, Eastern Europe, Southeast Asia), a mix of communicable and noncommunicable diseases and maternal and childhood conditions characterize the leading causes of death.

Additional tips

  • Whenever the productivity impact is HIGH or MAXIMUM, there is probably also a financial impact due to the cost of the
    workforce being impacted.
  • Financial risk is sometimes hard to define, in particular when tied to contracts. When in doubt, skip it.
  • If you have any HIGH or MAXIMUM impacts, propose that a more complete threat model and pen-test be run.
  • Educate the project owners and lead developers of the project about the meaning of these risks and how the RRA can
    help them make decisions such as which operational environment to select, what technologies to use, and how much
    effort to put into securing the project.

Data dictionary (5-10 minutes)

We want to know about all data the service will process or store (and not just store). Any data the service can touch
or see is to be considered.
You will need to ask the team or service owner about what kind of data the service processes or stores. Here are some

Set the data classification for each data type in the dictionary, such as “PUBLIC”, “STAFF CONFIDENTIAL”, etc. by using
the “RRA Utilities” menu.
Mozilla uses standard classification levels.

When you figure out what the bulk or the most important data is, set this as the “Service Data Classification” in the
RRA metadata.

Guided process for risk analysts: running your rra in ~30 minutes

This is a guided example of how to run an initial RRA. You will:

  • Invite the relevant people to a meeting.
  • Help them figure out risk impacts and record everything in the RRA doc.
  • Help them figure out the next steps.
  • Make them feel like they own the RRA document (and they do!).

How-to: request an rra of your service

To manually request an RRA, please file a bug to our component. Please include basic information about the project, a diagram, any relevant links and 0-2 additional people to invite for the assessment.


Data is the most important item in risk management. Software, websites,
infrastructure, networks and people handle, process, exchange and store

The RRA focuses on creating a summary of the risks associated with your
data. Key points:

  • Quick! The RRA takes 30 to 60 minutes maximum.
  • Very high-level. Details are for complete threat models. The RRA can become a complete threat model over time
  • Concise, readable. Short and with clear risk levels.
  • Easy to update. Can be run during any phase of the project development and continuously updated.
  • Informative. Collects risk impact and a data dictionary. Also collections information about how the service
  • Let you know what to do. The RRA includes the list of recommendations from the security team with a priority for
    each item.

This helps to make the following type of risk-based decisions:

  • Is the security provided by a given platform appropriate to host a
    specific classification of data?
  • How much should we care about maintenance, etc?
  • Is there anything obvious we should really look at fixing right now?
  • Where should we focus our efforts to significantly increase the security or the service?
  • Did we forgot anything, or had any blind spot we hadn’t though of?

Rapid assessment — перевод на русский — примеры английский | reverso context

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Ничего не найдено для этого значения.

Результатов: 262. Точных совпадений: 262. Затраченное время: 86 мс


Корпоративные решения




Справка и о нас

Индекс слова: 1-300, 301-600, 601-900, Больше

Индекс выражения: 1-400, 401-800, 801-1200, Больше

Индекс фразы: 1-400, 401-800, 801-1200, Больше

Rapid needs assessments

Rapid assessments seek to determine the magnitude of a crisis, the degree of impact on the population, the status of sector-specific population needs (food, water, sanitation, shelter, health care), vulnerable populations at particular risk, and the state of the disaster response.

This requires public health providers to be on the ground characterizing and quantifying the affected population: identifying existing and potential pubic health problems; measuring present and potential impact, especially health and nutritional needs; assessing resources needed, including the availability and capacity of a local response; aiding in planning and guiding an appropriate level of external response; identifying vulnerable groups; and providing baseline data from which the public health system can be restored.

Epidemiological data can be gathered through a variety of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-methods study designs. The critical point is to gain familiarity with the various methods and their appropriate applications. Crises tend to limit the purity of traditional study designs: insecurity, lack of baseline population data for sampling frames, and the need for rapid analysis and dissemination factor into the difficulty of gathering primary population data in these settings.

Despite these limitations, crisis epidemiologists have built on a body of literature and devised commonly accepted methodologies for deriving and tracking critical indicators—the qualitative or quantitative criteria used to correlate or predict the value or measure of a program, system, or organization.20 Such tools inform and guide decision making during the crisis and beyond.

The interagency Standardized Monitoring and Assessment of Relief and Transitions (SMART) initiative has assisted humanitarian practitioners in developing field methodologies to generate and track two key crisis indicators: the nutritional status of children under the age of 5 years and the mortality rate of the population.

Rapid risk assessment

A typical Rapid Risk Analysis/Assessment (RRA) takes about 30 minutes. It is not a security review, a full
threat-model, a vulnerability assessment, or an audit. These types of activities may however follow an RRA if deemed
appropriate or necessary.

The main objective of the RRA is to understand the value and impact of a service to the reputation, finances,
productivity of the project or business. It is based on the data processed, stored or simply accessible by services.

Note that the RRA does not focus on enumerating and analyzing security controls. The RRA process is intended for
analyzing and assessing services, not processes or individual controls.

Rapid7 — купить продукцию производителя rapid7, по минимальной цене на официальном сайте. лучшие программы и оборудование на

Основанная в 2000 году американская компания Rapid7 является лидирующим производителем простых и инновационных решений для анализа и организации информационной безопасности в корпоративных IT-средах. Программное обеспечение Rapid7 предлагает функции сбора, согласования и анализа защиты информации, отличаясь от традиционных решений для оценки уязвимостей и управления инцидентами тем, что предоставляет обзор состояния безопасностей активов и пользователей в пределах любых сред, включая виртуальные и мобильные, а также публичные и частные облака.

Продукты Rapid7 реализуют передовые возможности управления угрозами, тестирования проникновения, наблюдения за конечными точками, выявления и исследования инцидентов, помогая компаниям совершенствовать управление рисками, достигать соответствия отраслевым и законодательным требованиям, а также своевременно блокировать атаки.

Собственная технология аналитики угроз, используемая более 200 000 членами открытого сообщества Metasploit, и ведущая в индустрии лаборатория Rapid7 Labs предоставляют релевантный контекст, обновления в реальном времени и приоритезацию рисков. Программы Rapid7 уже выбрали свыше 3000 организаций из 78 стран, включая более 250 компаний из списка Fortune 1000.

Программное обеспечение Rapid7:

  • UserInsight – «радар» для обнаружения, анализа блокирования угроз информационной безопасности, направленных на пользователей.
  • Nexpose – система управления уязвимостями в безопасности корпоративных данных.
  • Metasploit – решение для тестирования проникновения угроз.
  • Mobilisafe – инструмент оценки и контроля рисков мобильных устройств в организации.
  • ControlsInsight – программа оценки, анализа и улучшения защиты конечных точек.

    Сайт производителя: http://www.rapid7.com/

  • Running the rra meeting

    Note: If this is your first RRA, ensure that someone who has run RRAs previously is present to help you. It is good
    to have attended multiple RRAs before starting your own. Your experience and understanding is key to running a
    successful RRA that will help the teams and keep the service safe.

    RRA Utilities: There is a menu at the top of the document called the “RRA Utilities” menu. Use it to set risk
    impact, levels, data classification and marking the RRA as reviewed. Do use it as our scripts rely on this to copy RRAs
    to our RRA API.

    • Fill in the service name
    • Fill in the service owner: ask whom would be taking the decision to turn the service off in case of an incident, if
      it’s unclear. That is the service owner.
    • Lookup the owner’s closest director or VP and add this as well.
    • Leave “service data classification” and “highest risk impact” empty for now.

    Service notes (5min)

    This is where you put any notes that you feel are relevant to the understanding of the service, security, etc.
    Ask the service owner what the service does and a little bit of how it works. Ensure that you understand the service
    You should be able to reformulate what the service does, and the service owner to agree on your formulation.

    Generally, you want to copy a diagram of some sort and have links back to the RRA request bug, and the service’s own
    website (which may be a vendor). This is also a good time to mention the vendor questionnaire
    if this is a vendor and it hasn’t been filled in.

    Feel free to go back to this section at any time to add any further notes.

    Threat scenarios (5-10 minutes)

    This is where we discuss potential attack scenarios and figure out how bad things could go (worse-case scenario).
    The RRA document itself contains tips about this section as well.
    We do not record the threat types, attacker types, etc. in this model in order to save time.

    Record all results and make sure that you set an impact level (use the “RRA Utilities” menu for this)

    Confidentiality: What happens if all the data is disclosed to the world?

    Integrity: What happens if the data is incorrect, misleading, website defaced, etc.?

    Availability: What happens if the data or service is missing, deleted, or currently unreachable?

    For each, run through these questions and assign an impact level if appropriate:

    Enhance these scenarios, eventually to create a complete threat model if the assessed impacts are HIGH or MAXIMUM and
    if further security work is required, or the RRA is revisited.

    Time management — take control

    You will be responsible for the time management when running the first RRA for a service.
    This means, you will sometimes have to cut a discussion short and be assertive: we have a tendency to jump directly to
    discussing security controls during risk discussions.

    Example red flags that indicate you should re-focus the current discussion:

    • The discussion languishes (>1 minute) around “how to mitigate this very issue” or “we’re doing X to ensure this never happens”.
    • The discussion focuses on process preferences, changes, etc. instead of just filing the RRA document.
    • The discussion about how the service works takes too long (>15 minutes) and the owner has to lookup every single
      detail (you only need an overview at this stage, or the owner has to come back when they know what service they want
      to look at).

    A good tip is to reserve 60 minutes of RRA time in the calendar, and plan to run the RRA for only 30 minutes.
    This leaves you with some room for error, and handle services that weren’t well understood by their owners. Best case
    scenario, everyone will be happy when you cut the meeting short after only 30 minutes.

    What to focus on during an rra?

    • Getting value for the service owner. The service owner needs to understand what is most important to protect and
      if they have any blind spot.
    • Data. Fill in the data dictionary. You need to know most of the data the service will have access to, stored or
    • Impact assessment. The RRA is the authority for impact levels and these are paramount. How bad can things get,
      what’s the worse case scenario?
    • Recording threat scenarios. What attack scenarios were considered? Would someone else understand it?

    What to NOT focus on:

    • Gathering security controls and figuring out how effective they are. Don’t do that! This information may be
      recorded if it comes up but do not focus on it as this is very time consuming. If the service is considered risky,
      specific processes can be recommended in the RRA recommendations section to assess specific controls separately.
    • Likelihood, Security provided by service. Don’t spent much time there! It is very hard to assess likelihood in most
      scenarios, and easy to get lost in “what if”. We have specific, separate processes to assess likelihood. Some quick
      questions may still help though, such as “what’s the security history of this service?”

    When not to run an rra?

    RRAs can only be run on services. If you have a question about a specific feature or design choice, and how it’s going
    to impact other services: find which service your feature is tied to and see if there is already an RRA available.
    Otherwise, request an RRA for that service, this will help us (and you) assess your feature or design choice!

    Note on large services
    Large services may be be split into multiple smaller services or sub-services that handle a specific type of data and
    expose a limited set of features. This choice has to be made when running the RRA. If the sub-services are owned by
    different teams, it is a strong indicator that multiple RRAs should be run.

    Large services that cannot be split up not only lead to a complex assessment, but also may indicate that the service
    itself needs to be re-designed in a more secure fashion.

    When to run rras? what do i need to bring or do?

    RRAs are designed to be created and updated as needed, at any time, with or without an associated meeting. That being
    said, you should run the first RRA during the design or architecture phase of new services together with a trained risk

    It is also recommended to have these things available for the RRA creation:

    • Name of a person or/and team responsible for the service.
    • Data flow diagram.
    • List the kind of data that will be processed or stored: secrets, credentials, public data, confidential data, and anything else that may be important for this service.
    • An understanding of how the service works.

    Wrapping up

    • Make sure you’ve filled the “Service Data Classification” up top according to your data dictionary (what you consider
      to be either the bulk of the data or the most important data is your classification)
    • Make sure you’ve also filled the “Highest Risk Impact”, this is basically the high impact recorded in the threat
    • Double check with the team:
      • Present the current risk impact and ask if they think it’s reasonable.
      • Present the current recommendations and ask if they think anything’s missing and what they should start with.
      • Ask the team if there’s any additional security related question they want to ask or if anything wasn’t covered.
    • Add Google docs comments to the recommendations and assign the comment to the service owner, to ensure they’ve also
      been notified by email.
    • Make sure you have marked the RRA as reviewed by yourself in the “RRA Utilities” menu.

    Recommendations (5 minutes)

    While the RRA is not meant as a complete review, recommendations do come
    up and this is a great time to have a quick 5 minute chat about these.

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