II. Accommodation, reduction, elision

Iv. articulatory transitions



In the process of speech, that is in the process of transition from the articulatory work of one sound to the articulatory work of the neigh­bouring one, sounds are modified. These modifications can be condi­tioned:

a) by the complementary distribution of the phonemes, e. g.
the fully back /u:/ becomes back-advanced under the influence of
the preceding mediolingual sonorant /j/ in the words tune, nude.

The mid-open, front /e/ becomes more open followed by the dark 1 in hell, tell, sell. Compare with bet, let, set.

In the word keen /k/ is not so back as its principal variant, it is advanced under the influence of the fully front I’v.l which follows it.

b) by the contextual variations in which phonemes may occur at
the junction of words, e. g. the alveolar phoneme /n/ in the combina­
tion in the is assimilated to the dental variant under the influence of
/3/ which follows it.

c) by the style of speech: official or rapid colloquial. E. g.
slight pressure /’slait ipreja/ may turn into /islaipipreja/ in collo­
quial speech, similarly hot muffins /ihut ImAfmz/ may turn into

Fr if

/p /

Assimilation is the chief factor under the influence of which the principal variants of phonemes are modified into subsidiary ones.

Assimilation is a modification of a consonant under the influence of a neighbouring consonant.

When a consonant is modified under the influence of an adjacent vowel or vice versa this phenomenon is called adaptation or accommo­dation, e. g. tune, keen.

When one of the neighbouring sounds is not realized in rapid or careless speech this process is called elision, e. g. a box of matches /э ibüks sv ‘msetjiz/ may be pronounced without/v/in/sv/ —/э ‘büks э ‘msetfiz/, Waste paper /iweist ipeipa/ may turn into /iweis ‘pei pa/ in rapid or careless speech.

Assimilation which occurs in everyday speech in the present-day pronunciation is called living.

Assimilation which took place at an earlier stage in the history of the language is called historical.

For example the present-day pronunciation of the words session, question, nature, occasion results from the historical assimilation of /sj/, /tj/, /zj/ in /Isesjan/, /ikwestjan/, /’nsetjur/, /alksezjan/ to /isejan/, /ikwestjbn/, /ineitjs/, /э’кехзэп/.

As far as the direction of assimilation (and accommodation) is con­cerned it can be:

1) progressive, when the first of the two sounds affected by assimi­lation makes the second sound similar to itself, e. g. in desks, pegs, the


sounds /k/ and /g/make the plural inflection /s/ similar to the voiceless Jkl in /desks/ and to the voiced /g/ in /pegz/;

2) regressive, when the second of the two sounds affected by assim­
ilation makes the first sound similar to itself, e. g. in the combina­
tion^ the the alveolar It/ becomes dental, assimilated to the inter­
dental Id/ which follows it;

3) double, or reciprocal, when the two adjacent sounds influence
each other, e.g. twice /t/ is rounded under the’influence of /w/ and /w/
is partly devoiced under the influence of the Voiceless /t/.

To make the mechanism of articulatory transitions clear it should be viewed in detail in terms of the articulatory work of the speech producing mechanisms.

Each sound pronounced in isolation has three stages in its articu­lation. During the first stage the organs of speech move to the posi­tion which is necessary to pronounce the sound. It is called differently by different authors: initial stage, on-glide, excursion. During the second stage the organs of speech are kept for some time in the posi­tion necessary to pronounce the sound. This stage is called: medial stage, stop-stage, retention stage, the hold. Duringthe third stage the organs of speech move away to the neutral position. This stage is called final stage, off-glide, recursion, release.

There are two ways of joining the sounds: (1) merging of stages — when the final stage of the first sound merges with the initial stage of the second sound, loose type of articulatoiy transition and (2) in-terpenetration of stages — when the final stage of the first sound penetrates not only the beginning but also the middle of the second sound —close type of articulatory transition. For example in the word law the two sounds III and /o:/ are joined by way of merging their stages, see Fig. 17.

The first stage for III is the raising of the front edge of the tongue to the alveolar ridge and simultaneous lifting of the middle part of the tongue to the hard palate (the soft palate is raised). As soon as the tip of the tongue touches the teethridge and the sides of the tongue are lowered forming lateral passages, the vocal cords are brought together and made tense, the air passing between the vocal cords makes them vibrate: the vibrating air fills the pharynx, the mouth cav­ity and escapes through the lateral passages producing a clear allo-phone [1] of the /1/ phoneme —it is the medial stage of the lateral so-norant /1/.

— During the final stage of /II, the tip of the tongue moves away from the alveolar ridge and the whole of the tongue moves backwards to the low, narrow position for Ы, which follows III, the lips begin to get rounded for Ы, the end of III merges with the beginning of h:l. In the word /b:/ /1/4 is followed by Л/„ and /l/3 coincides with ly.lt, then follows /o:/g and /o:/3.

Interpenetration of stages takes place when sounds of a similar, or identical nature are joined together. For example: in the words act, bottle, vehicle the clusters /kt/, /tl/, /Id/ are pronounced with the «loss of plosion» — /kt/ and lateral plosion — /tl/, /kl/.

In /kt/ the medial stage of the sound /к/ — the back part of the tongue is pressed against the soft palate and a complete obstruction is formed — coincides with the initial stage of the sound /t/ — the tip of the tongue touches the alveolar ridge. The back part of the tongue is lowered only after the tip of the tongue is pressed against the alveo­lar ridge, the plosion of /k/ is not heard, see Fig. 18.

In the word bottle the sounds /t/ and /1/ are joined interpenetrat­ing their stages. At the moment of the hold of /t/, that is, when the tip of the tongue is pressed against the teethridge, the sides of the tongue are lowered, letting the air pass through these narrow air pas­sages (or one passage, if only one side of the tongue is lowered): the lateral plosion takes place — the hold. The vocal cords start vibrating

Az B2 /———— j-tt

M, &iX3 B^ ^f B/ ^

Fig. 17. Fig. IS.

at the end of the hold for /t/ and the air passes through the pharynx and the mouth cavity along the lateral passages, producing the dark allophone II] of the III phoneme.

After the hold of /1/ is accomplished, the final stage of /1/ takes place, that is the tongue returns to the neutral position and the vocal cords stop to vibrate. In /kl/ the air also escapes laterally, the vocal cords start vibrating at the end of the hold for /k/. The velar closure is released by lowering the sides of the tongue.

In a sequence: affricate -f- a stop, the affricate is released in the usual way, e. g. sketchbook /’sketfbuk/ — the alveolar release of /p takes place in the usual audible way.

When a plosive is followed by the nasal /n, m/ the closure is released nasally: the soft palate lowers during the hold of the stop, releas­ing the compressed airstream through nasal cavity; /bm, tn, dn/ — nasal plosion.

When two identical sounds are joined together, a single but pro­
longed medial stage, or hold, takes place. There is no interruption
in the articulation of the two sounds, but we hear both of them due
to the change in their tenseness, e. g. hot tea /’hut ‘ti:/, hard times
‘taimz/. The tenseness decreases at the end of the hold of the
first sound and increases at the beginning of the hold of the second
sound. ■ ■ ■

Russian learners are apt to mispronounce English clusters /tn/, /dn/, /kt/, /gd/ because the mechanisms of the articulatory transitions from /t, d/ to /n/, from /k, g/ to /t, d/ in English and the Russian clus­ters 7пт/, /kt/, /гд/ are different, that is, the timing of the work of the power, vibrator, resonator and obstructor mechanisms in English and Russian is different. For example the Russian clusters /пт/, /kt/, /гд/ :in аптека, факт, где /т, д/ are pronounced with an audible plosion of 7п, к, г/.


Cases of loose and close articulatory transition can also be observed

a) the mechanism of the aspiration of the initial stressed /p, t, W
in English. Aspiration is a delay in the onset of voicing. A brief peri­
od of voicelessness is heard after the hold of /p, t, k/, which sounds like
a puff of air after the release of the stop: Pete, tick, Kate /phi:t/,
/thik/, /kheit/ before the vowel, which follows /p, t, k/. Russian /n,
T, к/ under similar conditions are unaspirated: the vocal cords begin
vibrating immediately after the release of the closure for /п, т, к/:
пить, Тим, кит — close CV transition;

b) the mechanism of the Russian CV transition, when a consonant
is followed by the front /и/ is more close than the English consonant
to /i/ or /j/ transition, compare: Pete — пить, neat — нить, beat
бить, seen синь, meal мил, кет лим, leap —■ лип, veal

Both in Russian and in English the vowel articulation is superim­posed on the consonant articulation which precedes it, this results in palatalization. However the delay in the onset of the vowel is longer in English than in Russian, which is characterized by the more obvious softening in the Russian consonants during the CV transi­tion — close type.

c) Labialization in English (no lip protrusion) and Russian simi­
larly involves the lip-rounding in addition to the primary articula­
tion — clcse CV transition. Compare: Paul Пол, tool Тула,
тол, pull пуля, call — кол, boor бур, cool куль,
buck — бука.

When the two neighbouring sounds are affected by assimilation, it may influence: 1) the work of the vocal cords; 2) the active organ of speech; 3) the manner of noise production; 4) both: the place of articulation and the manner of noise production.

1) Assimilation affecting the work of the vocal cords is observed when one of the two adjacent consonants becomes voiced under the influence of the neighbouring voiced consonant, or voiceless — under the influence of the neighbouring voiceless consonant. For example, in the word gooseberry Is/ became voiced under the influence of the next voiced /b/ — regressive assimilation. In the combination what’s this the voiced /z/became voiceless under the influence of the preced­ing voiceless HI— progressive assimilation.

In the process of speech the sonorants /m, n, 1, r, j, w/ are partly devoiced before a vowel, preceded by the voiceless consonant pho­nemes /s, p, t, k/, e. g. plate, slowly, twice, cry. In this case partial pro­gressive assimilation affects the work of the vocal cords both in English and in Russian; compare the above examples with the Russian: пла­мя, смена, кров.

In Russian voiceless-voiced distinction can be completely lost, compare: суп, субпродукты where /6/ undergoes complete regressive assimilation to /n/ which follows it. Russian learners should be care­ful about the cases where regressive assimilation may fully affect the work of the vocal cords due to the Russian habit of regressive voicing


or «devouring, for example: blackboard — no voicing of /k/, setbauit — no voicing of HI, these people — no devoicing of /z/.

Two obligatory assimilations of this type in English are used ■to and have to (must), e.g.; / used to wear a suit /ai Jju:st t9 ‘wee э ssju:t/ but / used two /ai iju:zd Ни:/ (шаш verb), / have to be ■early /ai ‘haef ta bi V3:h/ but / have two /ai ‘hsev ‘tu:/ (main verb).

In unstressed syllables the assimilations of Ienis to fortis (energy assimilation) are very frequent particularly with a) final inflexional /d, z/; b) grammatical items as, of; c) auxiliary verbs:

He collected stamps III

I was sure /s/

As cold as ice /s/

She refuses to answer /s/

of course III

James could tell him /t/

This assimilation is not observed in the most careful styles of speech.

2) The manner of noise production is affected by assimilation in cases of a) lateral plosion and b) loss of plosion or incomplete plosion. The lateral plosion takes place, when a plosive is followed by /1/. In this case the closure for the plosive is not released till the off-glide for /1/: the sides of the tongue are lowered and the air escapes along them with lateral plosion, e. g. please, candle, cattle (see above). In­complete plosion takes place in the clusters a) of two similar plosives like /pp, pb, tt, td, kk, kg/, or b) of two plosives with different points •offcrticulation like: /kt/, /ktf/, /dg/, /db/, /tb/. In the first case a single ■plosive is pronounced with a very long hold, e. g, attraction, lamp post, what time, went down, big cat. In the second case the ■closure of the organs of speech for the second plosive is made before the release of the first. So there is only one explosion for the two plosives. The first is incomplete, or lost, e, g. act, fact, good girl, hot bottle. In Russian similar plosives have the three stages, which results in two explosions for both plosives: акт, факт(&е& above).

The mechanism of the nasal plosion is similar in both languages: a plosive followed by the syllabic/n/, /m/has no release — the release is produced not by a removal of the closure, but by the lowering of the soft palate, the air escapes through the nasal cavity, e. g. but­ton, stop moaning, submarine. Nasal plosion takes place in Russian, <e. g. днем, обман, отнюдь.

Complete nasal and lateral assimilation may occur in the, there across word boundaries, e. g.:

turn the key /its:n бэ №’•/ —>-/%:п^_пэ Jki.7 open the door /teupn 5э vda:/—*-/(эирп пэ vdo:/ all the best /Ь: бз vbest/-^/’o:lwte vbest/

3) Assimilation affects the place of articulation and the manner of noise production when the plosive, alveolar /t/ is followedjjy the

constrictive, post-alveolar /r/. For example, in the word tip alveolar /t/ becomes post-alveolar and has a fricative release.

In should you /ijud ju:/ the place of the alveolar /d/ can be changed into palato-alveolar /dg/, which is not a plosive but an affricate, under the influence of the palatal /j7. which follows /d/: /’Judgu:/.


Elision can be historical and contemporary.

English spelling is full of «silent» letters which bear witness to historical elision, e.g. walk /wo:k/, knee /ni:/, knight /nait/, cas­tle /ika:sl/, write /rait/, iron /laisn/, etc.

The most common cases of contemporary elision are Ihe following: elision of /t, d/ in

a) /ft, st, Jt, 6t, vd, zd, öd/ sequences:
cleft palate /iklef ^paslst/

waste paper /’weis грегрэ/ crushed strawberries /1кгл£ sstro:bnz/ bathed the baby /*ba:6 Эз 4beibi/ dived below /idaiv bijau/ closed doors /kbuz 4do:z/ breathed deeply /’bri:8 vdi:ph/.

b) /pt, kt, bd, gd, tft, dsd/ sequences;
trapped by /Itrsep vbai/

cracked pots /’кгэек 4pots/ dubbed film /idAb Jilm/ bugged telephone /’Ьлд ^elsfaun/ enriched foodstuffs /mintf Ju’.dsUfs/ ridged surface /Ind3 vs3:fas/

c) /md, rid, gd/ sequences:
slammed the door /islsem Sa ^do:/
hair-brained scheme /iheabrem sski:m/

stringed musical instrument /’strip ‘mjuzikl ^nstrsmsnt/ In a), b), c) cases elisions most frequently remove the marker of past tense in verbs. The meaning is usually clear from the con­text.

There are some words and verbal forms in which elision fre­quently exists in everyday speech. They are:

1. months and clothes with elided dental, fricatives: /mAn6s/->
—►/nuns/, /kbuöz/ —>■ /klauz/;

2. fifth and sixth elide the consonants which precede /6/, e.g.
/fif6/—эк/fif/, /siksG/ — /sikG/.

3. of elided /v/ before /5/, e.g.

seven of those apples /isev3n э Öair. ,replz/ six of the best /isiks d Ээ vbest/

— before other consonants, at more rapid tempo, e.g. two pounds of pears /ltu: Ipaunz э vpeaz/ a pint of milk /э Ipamt э 4milk/

Elided /v/ before /m/, at more rapid tempo, e.g,

give me your word /’gi mi jo: xw3:d/

leave me some more pudding /IH: mi ээ 1тэ: vpudin/

he mustn’t have my share /hi ‘nusnt h® mai Jes/

4. tt is reduced to t in the following verbal forms:

I want to drive /ai ‘wonla vdraiv/ We’ve got to be careful /wi:v igots bi

5. going to has the form /дэпэ/ in all cases except very care­ful speech, e.g.

We’re going to move house /пэ 1дэпэ ‘mu:v vhaus/

There is a tendency nowadays to pronounce sounds which are not pronounced as a result of historical elision, e.g. often /ufn/—>• /of tan/.

Assimilation in English differs from the Russian mainly along «the lines of direction: progressive voicing or devoicingis very rare in Russian, but quite common in English. It occurs in the follow­ing cases:

1. Contracted forms of the verbs, when the ending s is preceded
by a voiced or a voiceless consonant, e,g. Bob’s gone, that’s right.

2. Suffixes -(e)s of the nouns in the plural, or the third person
singular, e.g. girls, rooms, books, writes.

3. The possessive suffix -s’ or -‘s, e.g. Jack’s hat, Bob’s dog,

4. The past indefinite suffix -ed, e.g. played, worked, lived.
Cases of English regressive voicing or devoicing are very rare,

e.g. five pence /ifaifpans/, gooseberry /,’gu:zbn/; these are cases of historical assimilation.

Regressive voicing or devoicing in Russian is obligatory both within a word and at the word boundary, e.g. пробка, сказка, воз сена, под столом.

Regressive assimilation of this type is very rare inside words in English, e.g. newspaper /inju:speipa/.

However it is observed in word boundaries in rapid, careless speech (see above).

Care should be taken to avoid regressive assimilation in such English words as tennis ball /items bo:l/, blackboard /iblaekbo:d/ and in the word boundaries: English book /Irnglij1 tbuk/, like that /laik löaet/, these people /’Bi:z ipi:pl/.


1. What is assimilation, adaptation, elision? 2. What conditions are responsible for the modifications of sounds? 3, What types of as­similation do you know? 4. What is the merging of stages? 5. What is the interpenetration of stages? 6, What is the difference between the close and loose type of articulatory transition? 7. How is the work of the vocal cords affected by assimilation? 8, How is the manner of

noise production affected by assimilation? 9. How are the place of articulation and the manner of noise production affected by assimi­lation? 10. Give examples of contemporary elision. 11. What is the difference between the mechanisms of articulatory transitions in English and in Russian?


•I. Read the pairs of words below, characterize subsidiary variants оГуоше! phonemes due to adaptation,

a) booty /lbu:ti/—beauty /ibju:ti/
moon /mu:n/—music /imjurzik/

b) bed /bed/—bell /bei/
wet /wei/—well /wel/

c) coop /ku-.p/—cat /ks&t/—keen /kkn/
goose /gu:s/—cattle /iksetl/-— keep /ki:p/

d) peel /pi:I/—pool /pu:l/—-Paul /po:l/
tea /ti:/—ioo /tu:/—tore /to:/

geese /gJ:z/—goose /gu:s/—gorge /дэ:аз/

*2. Read the pairs below. What variants of the alveolar /t, d, n, I1 should be used before /0, B/ which follow them?J

eight /eit/—eighth /ate/

that evening /löset vi:vmrj/—that theme /töset %6i:m/

write it /Yait it/—write this /’rait- vSis/

wide /waid/—width /wide/

read it /*ri:d it/—read this /iri:d J5is/

ten /ten/—tenth ДепЭ/

on my table /on mai ДехЫ/—on the table /on 9э »teibl/

heal /hi:l/—health /helB/

all his /to:t Jhiz/—all this /I3:l %Öis/

*3. What variants of the /r/ phoneme are used: a) when it is preceded by /0, 0/
in «three», «thread», «with Russian»: b) when it is preceded by a voiceless
consonant in «shriek», «fry», «try», «free»; c) when it is followed by /з;,
u:/ in «roar», «room», «rule». й

*4. Read the pairs below. What variants of the consonants /d, g, 3/ are used before /w/?

a) dell /del/ — b) dwell /dwel/

luggage /UAgids/ — language /ilserjgwids/ gendarme /isa-ndam/— bourgeois /’buaswa/

c) read well /irl:d ^wel/—the bag which disappeared /бэ ibseg witf dis3,pi9d/

•5. Read the examples below. How are sonorants modified a) in the cluster* /pi, pr, tw, tr, kw, kl, кг/ before a stressed vowel? b) in the clusters /pj, tj, kj, H, fr, fj, 6r, 0), 6w, sw, si, sj, sm, sn/ before a stressed vowel?

a) lane /lern/ — plane /plem/

rise /raiz/ — price /prais/

. . ,, beware /bilwea/ — between /biitwim/


■dry/drai/ wire /waia/ lean /lkn/ green /grim/

beauty /ibju:ti/

dune /dju:n/

you /ju:/

lie /lai/

rend /rend/

reviews /n’vju:z/

rise /raiz/

enumerate /iinju:m9reit/

way /wei/

leep /H:p/

mute /raju:t/

mile /mail/

know /пэи/

try /trai/ quire ik clean /klhn/ cream /kri:m/

pupil /ipjurpl/

brie /tju:n/

queue /kju:/

fly /Hai/

friend /trend/

refuse /n’fju:z/

thrice /8rais/

enthusiasm /m’Ojuizisezm/

sway /swei/

sleep /sli:p/

suit /sju:t/

smile /small/

snow /srau/

Explain the mechanisms of a) the orally exploded variants of /p, b, t, d, k, g/ in the left column; b) the nasally exploded variants of /p, b, t, d, k, g/ followed by /m, n/ in the right column.

help us Ahelp as/ departing /di’patirj/ don’t ask /idsunt %ask/ darker /’dctkg/ ask us /4o:sk as/

help me Ahelp mi/ department /di’patmsnt/ don’t know /idaunt vnsu/ darkness /idakms/ ask me Да-sk mi/

7. Explain the mechanism of the laterally expl ded variants of the It, d/ pho­nemes followed by HI in:

little /Hi«/ middle /imidl/

— that lesson /’Sset Jesn/

— good luck /igud к1лк/

*S. 5tate what cases of assimilation can be observed in rapid, colloquial stylt in the examples below.

a) bright blue
. dart board


b) third part
head boy
red meat
hard work

<c) short cake bright green

■d) hard cash head gird

«) in Cardiff sunglasses

f) Christmas shopping

g) get your coat

I heard you come in bless you close your books .. .won’t you? …couldn’t you? …shouldn’t you? .. .can’t you? h) in the corner all the books what’s the point? where’s the breadknife?


*9. Transcribe and read the examples below, observe the elision of /t, d/ pie-ceded by a) fricatives, b) stops, c) nasals.

a) cleft palate c) slammed the door
waste paper hair-brained scheme
crushed strawberries stringed musical instrument
bathed the baby

b) trapped by
cracked pots
dubbed film
bugged telephone
enriched foodstuffs
ridged surface
dived below
closed doors
breathed deeply

10. Transcribe the words below. Single out the vowels that may be elided in
these words.

nursery temporary reasonable

petitioner phonetically parliament

policeman potato buffalo

difficult preference government

banana secretary bachelor

boundary Edinburgh naturally

several especially awfully

suppose carefully comfortable

history ‘ possibly machine

perhaps suffering interesting

11. Transcribe the words below. Single out the consonants that may be elided
in these words.

handbag humpty-dumpty landscape

postman attempt sanctuary

a sixth round empty next stop

last Saturday night time lamb

next time crumbs punctual

12. Give examples of historically established elision in words with the clus­
ters Im, kn, gn, mb, mn,’Jk/.

Control Tasks

1. Read the words, observe fhe stronger aspiration of/p, t, k/ before long vow­
els and diphthongs. Compare with the Russian /п, т, к/ pronounced with­
out aspiration.

port tar car порт

Pete table cable торт

power tower cow кот

pit tip cat nap

2. Describe the difference In the transition from /p/ to Ы in the words «port»
and «spot».

3. Read the pairs of words, describe the mechanism of voiceless fortis, voiced
lenis difference, which is functional here.

plight—blight try —dry crate —great found — bound tune—dune piece —bees penny—Benny park—bark twelve—dwell

4. Describe the mechanism of the articiilatory difference between the /e/ in
«hen», «hell» and between the tml in «tool», «tune».

5. Read the word combinations below. Observe and explain the mechanism of
articulation of two plosionless stops.

help Peter — сноп пшеницы club building— клуб был полон at times — оттуда good day — под домом black coffee — как когда

6. What mechanism is affected by assimilation in the pronunciation of /r/ in
the words «string», «strike», of /m/ in the words «smell», «smoke» or 1)1 in
the words «student», «suit»?

7. Explain the mechanism of /k/ to /ö/ transition in the combination «like
that». What mistake can be made by the Russian students in the articula­
tion of /кЭ/?

8. Pronounce the words and word combination. Underline the sounds affected
by assimilation, describe its type.

breadth, wealth, at that, afraid, apron, thrive

9. Pronounce the words correctly, underline the two plosives, explain the ar-
ticulatory difference in the CG transition in English and in Russian.

apt —аптека helped—обточка fact—факт

shopkeeper—шапка begged—когда

*10. Arrange these English and Russian words under the headings: (I) aspi­ration, no aspiration; (2) palatalization a) loose CV transition, b) close CV transition; (3) labialization, labialization with the lip protrusion.

top, bee, pit, built, port, meal, cope, deep, beauty, tarn, corn, music, pepper, onion, peace, come, lean, car, cable, lion, dean, топь, поле, тина, Коля, тесто, роль, сила, лом, ток, день, пень, соль, ряд, пел, рёв, бук, кило, мел, вилы, полк, ком, дуло, coop, tool, tall, call, gorge, goose, doom, dawn, room, thorn

*11. Arrange these words under the headings: (1) lateral plosion, (2) nasal plosion, (3) loss of plosion (two plosionless stops).

actor, curdled, muddle, needless, mottled, Britain, begged, oughtn’t, at last, what kind, admit, back to back, madness, witness, big books, partner, slept, cotton, great number, sudden, captain, top coat, red light, black goat, ripe cheese, huddle, at night, good looks

*12. Explain how assimilation affects the place of articulation in the vowels, /ta:—ka:, ki:—ka-, ku:l—ki:n, jes—ipju’.te, 1:1—ki:p/

*13. Transcribe these words and word combinations. Read them. Explain possible mistakes in the close CC transition.

anecdote, birthday, blackboard, medicine, this book, let’s go, what’s the time, sixth, his thing, pass them, is that, fifths, Smith’s there, soothes them, in the

14. Give your own examples and explain the difference between the English
and Russian articuiatory transitions in cases of (1) aspiration, (2) pala­
talization, (3) labialization.

15. Give your own examples and explain the difference between the English
and Russian articulatory transitions in cases of assimilation affecting (1>
the work of the vocal cords, (2) the place of articulation and the active
organ of speech, (3) the manner of noise production, (4) the position of
the soft palate.

16. Give your own examples and explain the difference between the English
and Russian articulatory transitions in cases of the (1) nasal plosion, (2)
lateral plosion, (3) loss of plosion.

J7. Give your own examples to illustrate rf’fferent cases of elision.


Language performs its function as a means.of intercommunica­tion not only in oral but also in written form. Therefore it is impor­tant to establish the relationship between orthography and pronuncia­tion, that is letters and sounds, which represent them.

English dictionaries usually indicate the pronunciation of each individual word, because the English spelling system is very diffi­cult. This is because 1) it represents two different languages, one of Romance and the other of Teutonic origin; 2) the English spelling has remained essentially the same since the days of Caxton * and the-other early printers. As a result of this 60 symbols are used to repre­sent vowels and diphthongs and 44 symbols are used to represent con­sonants in the written language. These symbols are separate letters-or combinations of letters, which correspond to vowel and consonant phonemes. They are called graphemes. Graphemic symbols are includ­ed into angle brackets.

Graphemes for the system of vowels are the following:

a, e, i, y, o, u oa, oe, oi, oy, oo, ou, ow, oe

ar, er, ir, yr, or, ur ue, ui, uy

aa, ae, ai, ay, au, aw, эе aer, air, ayr

ea, ее, ei, ey, eu, ew ear, eer, eir, eyr, eur, ev(e)r

te, ye iar, ier, yer

oar, oor, our, ow{e)r, uer igh, aigh, eigh, ough

Graphemes for the system of consonants are the following:

b, c, ch, d, dg, f, g, gh, gn, gu, h, j, k, 1, m, n, ng, p, ph, q, qu, r, s, sc, sch, sh, si, ssi, sei, ti, ci, ce, t, tch, th, u, v, w, wh, x, xcT У, z, zi

There are very few sounds which have one-to-one graphemic ref­erence, e. g. <w), (b), (]) in way, bay, lid, are single-valued graph­emes.

As a rule, one grapheme has many phonemic references, e. g;

—э banana —o: thought

—ei baby —u: through

<a>—ae back <ough>—ou though

a: bask —э borough
—э: ball
—d wash

Graphemes may be simple (a) and complex (ough).

A grapheme, which consists of one letter, corresponding to one pho­neme is called a monograph; two-, three- and four-letter graphemes, which correspond to one phoneme are called «digraph», «trigraph'» and «polygraph» — accordingly, e. g. (a), <b> are monographs, {ng),,

II. Accommodation, reduction, elision Caxton W. (1422-91) — the first English printer.

<ck> are digraphs, (tch), (sch) are trigraphs, {eigh>, <ough) are poly-One and the same phoneme may be derived from both: simple and ■complex graphemes, e. g, the phoneme lei is derived from (e>: tmt, egg; from (ea): ready, meat. In, ir./ are pronounced only in complex graphic contexts, e. g.

book, cook, look, shook, took

good, hood

bull, bullet, bullock, bully, full, pull

bush, cushion, push

could, should, would

However: bosom, wolf, woman.

If we analyse a word from the viewpoint of orthographic —■ pho­nemic and graphemic reference, the discrepancy between them will be almost universal. For example, the word stretch consists oi:

5 phonemes /s/ HI /r/ /e/ /tf/

5 graphemes s — t — r — e — tch

7 letters s — t — r — e — t — с — h

The word mouth consists oi:

3 phonemes /m/ /au/ /0/ 3 graphemes m — ou — th , 5 letters m — о — u — t — h

From the phonological point of view, a grapheme has a consider­able number of allophonic references, due to the complementary dis­tribution or free variation, in which a phoneme occurs. For example, ■the grapheme <o> in box is in reference with a more front allophone lv] than in cot, where Ы is more back. The grapheme (t) in twice is in reference with a rounded allophone of Ш and with It] post-alveo-3ar in tree.

Morphemic reference of graphemes is many-sided. Any graphic -difference must be considered as having an independent morphemic reference. E. g.

boys /bolz/ — boys’ /bolz/ —boy’s /b?lz/

s, s*( ‘shave different morphemic reference: s indicates the plural ‘form*, s’ indicates the plural form, possessive case; ‘s indicates the pos­sessive case of the singular form.

The knowledge of orthography is very important because changes in orthography are much slower than changes in phonology. Therefore there are a large number of rules of reading in modern English. Given below is a simplified table of some grapheme-phoneme correspond­ences, illustrated by typical contexts.

In «Phonemic references» only vowel phonemes are singled out to revise their spelling correspondences.



Graphemes Phonemic references Examples
a a a ae ai au, aw ey ar are, air all aim wa, qua a af, am, ance, mand, ant, ask, asp, ass, ast, ath /a/
Ы /ei/
fat fate fast anaemic wait, daisy cautious, law, hawk day far fare, fair tall, all calm, palm watt, squash China, semolina after, craft, draft; drama, example; chance, dance; command, demand; chant, grant; ask, task; grasp, gasp; brass, class; fast, cast, bath, father
e ea ее eigh, ey ew eu er
ear, eer
/e/ M 14 /«/ M /Jo/ /a:/
/»/ /«:/
bed, setting heading, meadow heed, meet weight, whey, they blew, shew euphemism, feudal reverse, serve hammer hear, beer, gear, dear bear, tear, pear earth, dearth
i i
ia ie
ir ier ‘ ire
A/ /1’/ /аю/
/t//ai/ /«/ /»/ /аи/
it, bitter police, marine dial, diary India, Sylvia relief, thief tie, pie birth, sir, whirl easier fire, mire

Orthography helps to differentiate homophones, e, g.

sight /sart/ — зрение; вид

cite /sait/ — ссылаться, приводить, цитировать

site /sait/ — местоположение

There are also cases when words coincide in their plural and sin­gular forms so far as the spelling and pronunciation are concerned. They may be distinguished only by the abbreviated forms, e. g. spe­cies /’spi:Ji:z/ (вид, порода): the singular and plural of this word!


are pronounced alike. The abbreviation sp stands for the singular and spp stands for the plural.

Graphemes in the English language may indicate the phonemic reference of a preceding, or the following grapheme. They perform diacritic function. E. g.

1. The doubling of consonants:

(a) indicates the shortness of the preceding vowel jmd differenti­
ates the meaning of words:

planed — planned noted — knotted

(b) differentiates the meaning of words:

assent—a cent appear—a pier arrival—a rival occur—a cure

(c) lengthens the preceding vowel:

barred, stirred, furred

2. The use of a «mute» e or r:

(a) indicates’the alphabetical reading of the preceding vowel and
performs differentiatory functions:

rat — rate pet — Pete fin — fine

(b) differentiates homophones:

born—borne pleas—please step—steppe do /deu/1—doe

(c) indicates the lengthening, or the diphthongal nature of a preced-
üng vowel:

are toe awe pore mere were due cure fury sire

There are two*notions in phonological literature which reflect the -connection of orthography with syllables and morphemes: (a) syllabo-•graph and (b_)morphograph. The parts of a word which represent syl­lables graphically are called syllabographs. They may consist of a •vowel, or a combination of vowels and consonants which corresponds to a syllable or syllables within the graphic norms of the analysed word, e. g.

Words Syllabographs

higher high-er

barring Ъаг-ring

bankrupt bank-rupt

refinement re-fine-ment

1 rt is a noun denoting a musical note, but not the verb do, 160

A morphograph is that part of a word which represents a morpheme graphically, e.j-g. the suffix -ing is a morphograph in the word singing; the suffix -ed is a morphograph in the word long-legged, etc,

Sounds are indicated in writing by means of transcription. It is especially useful in studying English, where the interpretation of the orthography can be complicated and misleading.

Transcription is quite indispensable in transliteration of names of persons, geographical names, magazines, names of ships, etc. Trans­literation is writing a word, or words, of one language in the letters of some other language.

Transliteration differs from transcription: it is simpler and may use additional symbols. E. g. Bath is transcribed as /ba0/ but trans­literated as 5am (the length of /a/ and the sound /6/ are ignored).

Given below is a list of Russian equivalents for English letters and letter combinations and phonetic renderings.

English Russian



a —а, ей, и, о, э, эй —л; иногда не передает-
ae —а, у, э, и, ии   ся
ai —ей, эй га —м
au —ау, о, оу, оо п —н
aw — 0, 00 ng —нг
ay —ей, и, эй —о, у, э, а, оу
b —б; иногда не пере- оа —о, оу
  дается ое —о, у, оу
с —-к, с, ш —а, о, у, уу
ch —к, х, ч, ш 0U —а, ау, оу, у
d __д ough—аф
e —е, и, э; иногда не 0W —ау, оу
  передается р —п; иногда не пере-
ea —е, и, ии   дается
ее —и, ии ph
ei —ей, и, эй, ии q _…„ .ту-
eigh —и, эй, аи г —Р
eo — е, ии S —ж, с, ш
eu —ю, ью sh —ш
ew —ю, ью t —т
ey —ей, и, эй u —а, е, у, ю; иногда не
f   передается
g —г, дж, ж; иногда не ui —и, у
  передается ur —ер, эр
gg — гг, ггк V —в
h —х; иногда не пере- w —в, у; иногда не пере-
  дается   дается
i —аЙ, е, и, э wor ‘ —Уэр
ia —айа, иа, ия X — ГЗ, 3, КС
ie — айе, и, ии У —аи, у, и, й
io —айо, ио z  



к —к; иногда не пере­дается

For example:

exact /igizaekt/ игзэкт

Exmoor /leksraua/ Эксмур

Levy /H,i:vi/ Ливи

Dyson /idaisn/ Дайсон

Byrd /ba:d/ Берд

Vyrnwy /iv3:nwi/ Вернуи

Woi thing /Iw8:8ig/ Уэртинг, Вортинг

Urban /1э:Ьэп/ Эрбан

Whistler /iwisb/ Уислер

Furness /ifa:nis/ Фернесс

Proserpine /’prusapain/ Просерпайн,

Прозерпина (миф.) (название судна)

Louth /Iau9/ Лаут

Southend /’sauGend/ Саутенд

Highmoor /lhaimua/ Хаймур

Given below are several «difficult» Russian letters, which are transliterated in English in the following way:

ш—sh Sholokhov

ж—zh Zhukov

ч —tch, ch Chekhov, Tchaikovsky,


щ—shch Shcherba

ы—у Bykov

x —kh Kharkov

я —ya Yalta


I. Why is it important to establish relationship between sounds and letters? What is a grapheme? 2. What are the types of graphemic reference? 3. What are the single-valued graphemes? What is a mono­graph? 4. What are the multi-valued graphemes? What is a digraph, txigraph, polygraph? 5. What are the simple and complex graphemes? 6. Give examples of /ae, e, u, u:/ connection with simple and complex graphemes, 7. Give examples of orthographic-phonemic-graphemic reference. 8. How are graphemes connected with phonology? 9. How are graphemes connected with morphology? 10. Give examples of phonemic reference of some graphemes. 11. How is orthography con­nected with lexicology, grammar? 12. What is the importance of ortho­graphy in differentiating homophones? 13. What diacritic functions-of graphemes do you know? 14. What is a syllabograph? 15. What is a morphograph? 16. What is the difference between transcription and transliteration?


*I. Give graphemic symbols of the phonemes:

/s/ in the word city /k/ in the word cat /J7 in the word oceanic /(j)u:/ in the word beauty /л/ in the word courage /3/ in the word borough

2. Give some examples of English graphemes.

*3. Analyse these words from the viewpoint of the inventory of graphemes, phonemes, letters.

baobab, vest, duly, ship, dish, awful, dawn, light, high, workt archaic, airy, laugh, watched

*4. Give explanation of the phonemic reference of the graphemes <r), (our), (ear) in the words;

right, afraid, pray, try, tour, tear, very, dry

*S. Give the phonetic reference of the tnorphograph «-ed» in the words:

worked, limited, pinned, begged, added, liked, barred, cared

*6. Transcribe these homophones. Translate them into Russian to prove the differentiator}1 function of graphemes.

pact—packed barred—bard pair—pare — pear franc—frank

■wear—where wea t her—whether

scene—seen ■berth—birth ceiling—sealing sole—soul bare—bear pray —■ prey rain —reign pail — pale air—heir fined — find pains—panes teas—tease peace—piece


feat—feet witch—which dear—deer bow—bough

bread—bred right—write

— rite peer—pier beach—beech hear—here fur—fir tale—tail male—mail sun—son beat—beet break—brake maize—maze weak—week currant—current serial—cereal

vain—vein —vane sell —cell sail—sale

compliment —comple­ment

hair—hare blue—blew

sea—see meat—meet heal—heel fare—fair cent—sent —scent rode—road team—teem hoarse—horse berry—bury gate—gait plain—plane key—quay

*7. Divide these words into (a) syllabographs and (b) morphographs.

(a) meter, caring, beauty, sourly, surely, teacher, crying, sixty

(b) prays, praise, child’s, readable, misrule, penniless, unknown,,
dislike, immortal, irrational

*8. Explain the diacritic function of the graphemes <e), (r>, <ss), <rr), <tt>, (nn) by comparing these pairs of words.

a) man—mane hear—he pope—pore met—mete her —hen bar —bare sit —site sir —sit sort —sour

b) tony—bonny lazy —lassy

car —carry noted—knotted

m ar — merry wrote—ro tten

her —hurry later —latter

cut —cutter fuse —fussy

*9. Transliterate these names by Russian letters.

Abel, Andrew;, Ann, Baldwin, Bernard, Dorothy, Esther, Gerald» Hugo, Ira, Jean, Jeremiah, Keith, Lionel, Mabel, Martha, Pius

Control Tasks

•I. Divide these words into morphographs.

face, facing, nicer, choicest, racy, princess, age, raging, larger, urgent, bulgy, burgess, raged, changeling, outrageous, faced, nicely. hugely, engagement, changeable

*2. Divide these words into a) morphographs, b) syllabographs. Transcribe them to illustrate phonemic references to syllabographs.

curing, fires, cheerless, cured, occurred, stirring, stirred, pining, pined, worker, working, worked, thoroughly, culture, nation, city, redder, cheering

*3. Transcribe these words. Show the phonemic reference of digraphs and poly­graphs.

aid, fairy, said, fountain, portrait, villain, straight, August, sauce, laugh, authority, taught, east, tea, delay, beige, threepence, leopardr people, freight, weigh

*4- Fill in the blanks with fhe appropriate homophone.

(sealing, ceiling) 1. We had difficulty in … the leak. 2. The spidermade its web on the … . 3. The … of the гост is high.

(sole, soul) 1. My old boots need new …. 2. He was the… exe­cutor named in the will. 3. We had a nice … for lunch. 4. He has a hard job to keep body and . . . together. 5. He put his heart and . . -into work.

(bare, bear) 1. In winter the garden looked … .2. The pain was-almost more than he could … .3.1 can’t.. . that man. 4. He moved with the grace of a trained …. 5. The ice won’t . . . your weight,

(pear, pair) 1.1 have bought a . . . of shoes. 2. Please give me a. . ., I prefer them to apples. 3. They went away in … .

(right, write) 1. Don’t … on both sides of the paper. 2. What’s the … time? 3. In England traffic keeps to the left side of the road, not to the … as in other countries. 4.1 hope you know the difference between . . . and wrong.

(vain, vein, vane) 1. AH our work was in … .2. She is a … young girl, always giving herself airs. 3. One of the … of the propeller was. broken. 4. They found a… of gold in the rock. 5, He became so angry? that the … on his forehead swelled.

5. State a) which consonants are silent; b) which of the words have /6/..

a) exhaust diaphragm cupboard subtle

shepherd Thomas debt tomb

listen sign comb hustle

limb isle gnarl light

heirloom Tham.es knick-knack

b) wroth worthy method

throat bathe ethos

sooth loath Smith

thief moth pith

clothes strength smooth

with wealthy Plymouth

6. Give sentences with the contrast homophones.

hide—I’d hall—all

hitches ■—itches harmful—armful

hair—heir handy—Andy

hedge—edge unharmed—unarmed

7. Single out words with the author’s individual spelling used to sustain the
humour, consult the dictionary for correct spelling.

О the harbor of Fowley Is a beautiful spot And it’s there I enjowey To sail in a yot

Or to race in a yacht Roundja mark or a buoy Such a beautiful spacht Is the harbor of Fuoy! … But the wave mountain-high And the violent storm Do I risk them? Not Igh But prefer to sit worm

With a book on my knees By the library fire While I list to the brees Rising hire and hire

And so whether I weigh Up the anchor or not, I am happy each deigh In my home or ray yot;

Every care I resign

Every comfort enjoy,

In this cottage of mign

By the Harbor of Foy

by Sir Arthur Quiller-Coach

8. Learn the extracts by heart. They illustrate difficulties of English pronun­ciation. Transcribe these extracts.

Blood and flood are not like food Nor it mould like should and would Banquet is not nearly parquet Which is said to rhyme with «darky».

Rounded, wounded; grieve and sleeve Friend and fiend; alive and live; Liberty, library; heave and heaven Rachel, ache, moustach, slaven.

We say hallowed but allowed People, leopard; towed but vowed Mark the difference moreover

Between mover, plover, Dover Leeches, breeches, wise, precise; Challice, but police and lice,


Though the basic phonological elements are phonemes, human in­tercommunication is actualized in syllables.

The syllable as a unit is difficult to define, though native speakers of a language are usually able to state how many syllables there are in a particular word.

According to J. Kenyon the syllable is one or more speech sounds, forming a single uninterrupted unit of utterance, which may be a word, or a commonly recognized subdivision of a word.

The syllable can be a single word: chair /tfea/, a part of a word: English /’in-gliJV, a part of the grammatical form of a word: later /ilei-ta/.

The syllable can be analysed from the acoustic and auditory, ar-ticulatory and functional points of view. The syllable can be viewed in connection with its graphic representation.

Acoustically and auditorily the syllable is characterized by the force of utterance, or accent, pitch of the voice, sonority and length, that is by prosodic features.

Acoustic properties of syllables are studied with the help of intono-graph and spectrograph. Electroacoustic analysis made it possible to formulate some rules of syllable division (see below). Spectrograms of Russian ГС syllabic structures show, that such syllables are char­acterized by some noise in the beginning of the vowel and by a vow­el-like termination of the consonant: СГСГ, it is of great importance for syllable division.

Auditorily the syllable is the smallest unit of perception: the lis­tener identifies the whole of the syllable and only after that the sounds contained.

The articulatory energy which constitutes the syllable results from the combined action of the power, vibrator, resonator and ob-structor mechanisms.

Phonological! у the syllable is regarded and defined in terms of its structural and functional properties.

Syllables in writing are called syllabographs and are closely con­nected with the morphemic structure of words.

A syllable can be formed by a vowel: (V) in English, (Г) in Rus­sian; by a vowel and a consonant: (VC) in English, (ГС) in Russian; by a consonant and a sonorant (CS).

Г, V — types of syllable called uncovered open,

ГС, VC — types of syllable called uncovered closed,

СГС, CVC — types of syllable called covered closed,

СГ, CV — types of syllable called covered open.

G. P. Torsuyev suggests a differentiation of the following types of syllabic structures:

Г, V type: fully open,

СГС, CVC type: fully closed,

СГ, CV type: initially covered,

ГС, VG type: finally covered.

The structure of the English and Russian syllable is similar.


V err Г
cvc pit crc
cvcc fact СГСС
cvccc lapsed СГССС
ccvc plan ССГС
cccvc spleen СССГС
ccvccc stamps ССГССС
cccvcc spleens СССГСС
cvcccc texts СГСССС
cv dew СГ
ccv spy ccr
cccv straw cccr
vc eat ГС
vcc act ГСС
vccc asks ГССС













мгла ад акр астр

The peak or the crest of the syllable is formed by a vowel or a so-norant. The consonants which precede the peak and follow it are called slopes.

Vowels /эе, е, л, v, a,:, o:, ei, ai, аи, еэ, oi/ constitute almost always the peaks of prominence, /э, i, u, эй/ occur, as a rule, in unaccented syllables.

The consonant /rj/ never begins, /w/ never terminates the syllable.

The sonorants /w, r, j/ function as consonants, because they occur only before vowels: SVC structural type, e.g. /wi5, rait, jes/.

The sonorants /1, m, n/ can form syllables in terminal position, when preceded by a consonant, e.g. /’pi:pl, iga:dn, Ып, ‘j 9


The structural patterns of syllables formed by sonorants with a preceding consonant in English are similar to V-f С patterns: CS written /intn/.

According to G. P. Torsuyev’s data the syllabic structure in the English language of the combination consonant (or consonants) a sonorant is characterized by the following data:

CS type — 40 combinations, CSC type — 90 combinations, CSCC type — 15 combinations, CCSCC type — 1 combination.1

Syllable-forming sonorants in the combinations of the CS type are terminal /m, n, 1/. E. g.

earthen channel prism equal people garden often nation

II. Accommodation, reduction, elision1Торсу ев Г. П. Строение слога и аллофоны в английском языке. -1976.

■ М.,

written eagle even decision taken fortune listen rhythm able angel season camel

The combinability of syllable forming sonorants is the [fol­lowing: /1/ combines with all consonants except /6, 5/; /n/ com­bines with all consonants except /m, rj, n/; /m/ combines only with /6, 6, s, z, p/.

The distribution of consonants in the syllables of the CSC type is characterized by the following features: initial consonants may be represented by /p, b, t, d, k, g, f, v, 6, d, s, z, J1, 3, tf, cfc, m, r, w, n/; the medial sonorants may be represented by /n, m, 1/; final consonants are represented by /t, d, s, z, 6/. E.g.

opens vacant goggles ovens patient

marbles enables merchant arrivals] angels

patterns mortals urgent heathens equalled

coupled student softened rhythms motions]

peoples gardens servant decent whistles

officials leventh present persons


The distribution of consonants in the syllables of the C£CC type is characterized by the following features: the initial consonant may be represented by /p, d, t, tf, dg, f, v, s, z, J 5, r/. The peak of syllable is represented by the sonorants /n, 1/, they are immediately followed by /t, d, s/; final consonants are represented by /t, s, z/. E.g.

innocents agents patents tangents parents serpents students servants pheasants errands patients scaffolds licensed merchants heralds

The syllables of the CSVSCC type: entrants /lentrants/, emigrants ^emigrants/, minstrels /’minstrels/, hydrants /lhaidrents/ can5 be pronounced without (V)—CSSCC type, e.g.

emigrants /’emigrnts/ entrants /lentrnts/ minstrels /immstrlz/ hydrants /’haidrnts/

Russian terminal sonorants do not form syllables witlfconsonants, which precede them. However in some special cases: for stylistic purposes, or for the sake of rhythm, they may^become syllabic; e. g. ру-бль, во-пль, ви-хрь, дю-стр. Compare:

1. Была в Останкине зима.
Декабрь, число тридцатое и

2. Была в Останкине зима,

Декабрь, Тридцать первое

In the second variant the Russian /p/ is made syllabic for rhyth­mical purposes.

There are different restrictions on the possible consonant clusters in English and in Russian.

Final clusters in English are much more complex than initial ones. They express different grammatical meanings: plurality, tense, number, e.g. texts, mixed, glimpsed.

The structure of the Russian syllable is characterized by more complex and numerous initial clusters, they represent grammatical prefixes, e.g. вскрикнуть, всплакнуть, взрыв, кстати.

Syllables of the initial CC type constitute more than 50 combina­tions in English (except affricates and double consonants). Syllables •of the initial CC type in Russian constitute 236 combinations (affri—cates and double consonants including), e.g. speak, вчера.

Syllables of the initial CCC type constitute H combinations in English and 97 in Russian, e.g. street, вскинуть.

A number of combinations of the initial CCCC type constitute syllables only in Russian, there are no similar combinations in English, e.g. всплакнуть, взгляд, вздрогнуть.

The clusters/mh, sr, sj, fs, hr, stl/ never occur initially in English, compare with the Russian: мхи, сразу, сшить, всё, хруст, стлать.

The clusters /gr, str/ can occur only initially, /tn, dn, stl/ occur only finally, compare with the Russian: дни, стлать. The cluster (th) does not occur in Russian finally or initially.

In Russian СГ structural types of syllables are more common than ГС type. СГ syllabic types constitute more than half of all the struc­tural types in Russian. СГ together with ССГ types constitute 85%. In the Russian texts open syllables occur 3 times more often than closed ones. The most frequent pattern in English is CVC.

English VC, CVC structures are much more common than the Rus­sian СГ structural type. СГ prevalence in the Russian syllabic struc­ture results in the appearance of the vocalic element of /ъ, ь/ type in­side or before the CC clusters.

They most commonly occur in /гд, дг/ combinations, e.g. «игде», «отъгул».

Similar clusters in English are pronounced with the loss of plosion, e.g. good day, that cat.


There are different points of view on syllable formation which are briefly the following.

1. The most ancient theory states that there are as many sylla­
bles in a word as there are vowels. This theory is primitive and insuffi­
cient since it does not take into consideration consonants which also
can form syllables in some languages, neither does it explain the
boundary of syllables.

2. The expiratory theory states that there are as many syllables
in a word as there are expiration pulses. The borderline between the
syllables is ^according to this theory, the moment of the weakest ex­
piration. This theory is inconsistent because it is quite possible to

pronounce several syllables in one articulatory effort’ or expiration, e.g. seeing /Isi: 15/.

3. The sonority theory states’that there are as many syllables in a word as there are peaks of prominence or sonority.

Speech sounds pronounced with uniform force, length and pitch, differ in inherent prominence or sonority. For example, when the Rus­sian vowels /а, о, э, у, и/ are pronounced on one and the same level, their acoustic intensity, or sonority is different: the strongest is /a/, then go /о, э, у, и/,

0. Jespersen established the scale of sonority of sounds, that is,
the scale of their inherent prominence. According to this scale the
most sonorous are back vowels (low, mid, high), then go semi-vowels
and sonorants, then — voiced and voiceless consonants.

Scale of Sonority

1. low vowels /a:, 0:, v, as/

2. mid vowels /e, э:, э, л/j

3. high vowels /i:, 1, u:t u/^

4. semi-vowels /w, j/

5. sonorants /1, r, m, n, n/

6. voiced constrictive consonants /v, z, g, 8/

7. voiced plosive consonants /b, d, g/

8. voiceless constrictive consonants and affricates //, tf§ CI5, f,.
s, h, 6/

9. voiceless plosive consonants /p, t, b/

Sounds are grouped around the most sonorous ones, which form the peaks of sonority in a syllable. Two points of lower sonority con­stitute the beginning and the end of one syllable.

Compare melt and metal: in the first word /e/ is the most sonorous sound, the only peak of sonority, it is a one-syllable word. In the word metal there are two peaks of sonority /e/ and III, it is a two-syl­lable word.

In the word sudden the most sonorous is the vowel /л/, then goes the nasal sonor ant /n/ which forms the second peak of prominence, /s/ and /d/ are sounds of low sonority, they cannot be considered as syllable forming sounds.

In the Russian word пятница there are three peaks of sonority and accordingly three syllables.

The sonority theory helps to establish the number of syllables in a word, but fails to explain the mechanism of syllable division be­cause it does not state to which syllable the weak sound at the boundary of two syllables belongs.

4 The arc of^loudness» or «arc of articulatory tension» theory is based on L. V. Shcherba’s statement that the centre of a syllable is we syllable forming phoneme. Sounds which precede or follow it constitute a chain, or an arc, which is weak in the beginning and in the end and strong in the middle.

If a syllable consists of a vowel, its strength increases in the begin­ning, reaches the maximum of loudness and then, gradually decreases.

Graphically it can be represented by an arc of loudness or an arc of ar­ticulatory tension.

Consonants within a sillable are

, , , characterized by different distribution

of muscular tension. Shcherba distinguishes the following types jot consonants:

finally strong (initially weak), they occur at the beginning of the syllable;

.finally weak (initially strong), they occur at the end of a closed ■syllable;

double peaked (combination of two similar sounds): in their ar­ticulation the beginning and the end are energetic and the middle is weak .Acoustically they produce an impression of two consonants: flpen «naif/, /igud ‘dei/.

For example, in the words cab, за the consonants /k/ and /з/, that begin the syllables, are «finally strong», that is their articulatory strength increases to the end of /k/ and/з/ (they are also called initially weak). These consonants begin «the arc of loudness»

In the words eat, воз the final consonants /b/ and /в/, that end the syllable, are finally weak», that is their articulatory strength de­creases to the end of /b/ and /a/. These consonants terminate the arc of loudness» or the arc of muscular tension.

In terms of the «arc of loudness» theory there are as many sylla­bles in a word as there are «arcs of loudness» and the point of syllable division corresponds to the moment, when the arc of loudness begins or ends, that is: initially weak consonants begin a syllable, finally weak end it. (Finally strong consonants begin a syllable, initially strong end it.) For example, the word mistake consists of two arcs of loudness in which /m/ and /t/ are finally strong consonants and /s/ and

S/ аГе ча А- s/constitutes the end of «the arc of loudness», /t/ constitutes the beginning.

•ff Ärf «nSÄL»1^?UthedU/blepeaked/ss/occursat the junction ol two syllables. The sound /s/ is strong at both ends and weak

335 ASS»glcally» mnsMs0?* » Ж*

A syllable can be defined as a phonetic unit, which is pronounced by one articulatory effort accompanied by one muscular contraction, which results acoustically and auditorily in one uninterrupted arc of ■loudness.

The experiment carried out by N. Zhinkin showed that it is the pharynx, which is responsible for the variations in the loudness of the syllable. Perceptually the peak, or the crest of the syllable, is louder and higher in pitch than the slopes.

On the acoustic level it is characterized by a higher intensity than the slopes, and in many cases by a higher fundamental frequency.

None of the theories mentioned above are reliable in the definition of the syllabic boundary. To define the syllabic boundary it is neces­sary to analyse the syllable on two levels: articulatory-auditory {phonetic-phonological), to take into consideration the structural pattern of the syllable.

Different languages are characterized by different types of their syllabic structure.

In the Russian language syllables of СГ-СГ type have their bound­ary after the vowel: мо-ло-ко, о-ко-ло.

There are similar cases in’English: щюг£ег/%з:-кэ/, army /’a:-mi/, party /lpa:-ti/.

In the Russian words with ГССГ structural type, the place of the syllabic boundary depends on the character of CG cluster. If it occurs initially, it may beging syllable: мрак о-мрачать, but Ал-тай, since лт does not occur^ initially. *

A similar distributional dependence of the syllabic boundary on the nature of the CC cluster exists in English. E.g.

great—agree /э-igri:/, break—abrupt /a-‘brApt/ However there are exceptions» e.g.

speak /spi’.k/—despite /dis-ipait/

sky /skai/—escape /is-ikeip/

twice /twais/—saltwort /iso:lt-wa:t/

There is a tendency in Russian to begin non-initial syllables with the sound of minimal sonority: до-жди, ко-тлы, but тан-ки, кол-хоз.

Electroacoustic analysis makes it possible to formulate the fol­lowing rules of syllable division in English:

1, In affixal words the syllabic boundary coincides with the morphological boundary: dis-place, be-come, un-able, count4ess.

II. Accommodation, reduction, elision1There are other opinions on this point.

2. In words with CVCV structure the syllabic boundary is af­
ter the long accented vowel: farmer /iJa:-ma/.

3. In words of CVCV structure the syllabic boundary is withm the
intervocal consonant, which terminates the short accented syllable:
city /isrti/, pity /ipiti/.

4. In words of CSCV structure the syllabic boundary is within the
intervocal sonorant: inner /Una/, cinema /ismime/, enemy, /lenimi/.

5. Compared with the Russian СГ acoustic connection, English
CV cluster is close, Russian СГ syllabic cluster is loose, compare;
city /’siti/, lily /Uili/, money /1тлш/ and си-то, ли-ли, Ма-ни.

6. English diphthongs are unisyllabic, they consist of one vowel
phoneme, English triphthongs are disyllabic, because they consist
of two vowel phonemes: science /’sai-sns/, flower /Шэи-э/.


The syllable as a phonological unit performs three functions: constitutive, distinctive, identificatory. They are closely connected.

1. Constitutive Function

Syllables constitute words, phrases and sentences through the com­bination of their prosodic features: loudness — stress, pitch — tone, duration — length and tempo. Syllables may be stressed, unstressed,, high, mid, low, rising, falling, long, short. All these prosodic fea­tures constitute the stress pattern of words, tonal and rhythmic struc­ture of an utterance, help to perform distinctive variations on the syllabic level.

2. Distinctive and Differentiator^ Function

If we compare the words: lightening освещение and lightning молния, we may observe that their syllabicity is the only min­imal, distinctive feature: /Uaitfltn vs. Uaitnm/.

It is an example of the word-distinctive function of the syllab­icity of /n/.

There are rather many combinations in English distinguished from each other by means of the difference in the place ol the syllabic boundary: a name—an aim, ice cream—/ scream, we loanwe’ll own: /ataeim/—/an leim/, /iais’kri:m/—/ai iskrhm/, /wi- Uaun/— ,/wil isun/.

The distinctive, differentiator function of the syllabic boundary makes it possible to introduce the term «juncture». Close juncture or conjuncture occurs between sounds within one syllable, e.g. a name, I scream: in the first example the close juncture is between In! and /ei/, in the second — between /s/ and /k/. Open juncture, disjuncture, or internal open juncture occurs between two syllables. If we mark open juncture with /-f / then in our examples it will occur between a mme, I scream. American scientists H. A. Gleason, L. S. Har-

ris and K. Pike consider the open juncture a separate segmental phoneme. They include / / into the inventory of phonemes as a separate differentiatory unit.

3. Identificatory Function

This function is conditioned by the pronunciation of the speaker. The listener can understand the exact meaning of the utterance only if he perceives the correct syllabic boundary — «syllabodisjuncture», e.g. pea stalks стеблу горохаpeace talks мирные переговоры; my train мой поезд — might rain возможен дождь.

The existence of such pairs demands special attention to teaching not only the correct pronunciation of sounds but also the observation of the correct place for syllabodisjuncture.


The auditory image of a syllable can be shown in transcription: unknown /1лп-1пзип/, liner /Uai-пэ/, maker /imet-кэ/. Parts of ortho­graphic and phonetic syllables do not always coincide. E. g.

Word Phonetic syllables Orthographic syllables


table /Itei-bl/ ta-ble
laden /Uei-dn/ la-den
Spanish /fspga-nij/ Span-ish

It is very important to observe correct syllable division when necessity arises to divide a word in writing. Division of words into syllables in writing (syllabographs) is based on morphological prin­ciples. The morphological principle of word division in orthography demands that the part of a word, which is separated, should be either a prefix, or a suffix, or a root (morphograph): un-divided, utter-ance, pun-ishs be-fore.

However, if there are two or three consonants before -ing, these consonants may be separated in writing, e. g. gras-ping, puz-zling.

Words can be divided in writing according to their syllabic struc­ture, e. g. un-kind’U-ness. They can also be divided according to their meaning, e.g. spot-light.

There are six rules to help with dividing a word in writing:

1) Never divide a word within a syllable.

2) Never divide an ending (a suffix) of two syllables such as -able,
-ably, -fully.

3) With the exception of -ly, never divide a word so that an end­
ing of two letters such as -ed, -er, -ic begins the next line.

4) Never divide a word so that one of the parts is a single letter.

5) Never divide a word of one syllable.

6) Never divide a word of less than five letters.1

If we compare the system of syllable division and syllable forma-

II. Accommodation, reduction, elision1 Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary ofi Current English by A. S. Hornby — Moscow, 1982,— P. XIV.

tion in Russian and in English, we can draw the following conclu­sions:

1) Similar syllabic structural types can be found in both languages.

2) In both languages the single intervocal consonant between two
phonetic syllables belongs to the next vowel:

morning /lfflo:-mn/—мо-ре

cozy /’кэи-zi/—во-ля

occasi on /э-‘ке1-зп/—вб-ло-ком

The checked vowels constitute an exception, e.g. city, pity.

There is a tendency in the Russian language to accomplish syllable division before a sound of minimal sonority, e. g. тол-па, мор’Ской^. конь-ки, боч-ка, etc.

3) All consonants may begin a syllable in English, the only ex­
ception is the sound /rj/. In the system of the Russian language all
consonants may begin a syllable.

4) The structure of the Russian syllable is characterized by more
complex initial clusters. The structure of the English syllable is char­
acterized by more complex final clusters.

5) Initial CCCC type clusters constitute syllables only in Russian.

6) Russian words of foreign origin with the suffixes -ция, -ия,
corresponding to English words with the suffixes -tion, -y, have one
extra syllable: революция revolution, тенденция tendency.

7) English diphthortgsjDelong to one syllable, triphthongs may be
divided into two parts.


1. What is a syllable? 2, What are the lines along which a syllable can be analysed? 3. What is the structure of the syllable? 4. Define the peak and the slopes of the syllable. 5. «What is the role of sonorants-in syllable formation? 6. What do you know about different structur­al types of the syllable? 7. What do you know about structural dif­ferences of English and Russian syllables? 8. Speak on the theories-of syllable formation. 9. What do you know about syllable division?’ 10. How does the syllable perform constitutive and distinctive func­tions? 11. What is «disjuncture» («internal open juncture»), «close-juncture» («conjuncture»)? 12. Give examples to prove the importance-of the ident’iflcatory function öf the disjuncture. 13. What are the* principal differences of syllable formation and syllable division in; English and in Russian?


■*!. Give syllabic structural patterns of the following English and Russia«? words; characterize them from the viewpoint of their structure: open, cov­ered, etc.

(l)»pit, pat, pot, bet, tip, ten, top, took;

пол, бак, ток, час, воз, сон, так, нос (2) fact, taken, rhythm, prism, region, bacon, listen;

вопль, вепрь, жатв, битв, ритм, метр, типе, ЗАГС:


(3) depths, lapsed, boxed, lisped, lifts, busts;
текст, жертв, горсть, шерсть, Минск, тем

(4) рЗал, price, shriek, fret, smoke, twice;
птах, прав, жнец, здесь, злак, сгиб

(5) do, go, so, dew, he, pea, pie, boy;
да, бы, фа, си, те, ту, ли

(6) spy, stay, blue, brew, pray, dry;
дно, пну, все, про, кто; два

(7) ought, eat, orb, oak, eight, out, art,
он, ас, ад, ил, ух, ох, от, ах

(8) splay, spray, straw;
мсти, мзда, льсти, мгла

(9) ebbed, act, ask, else, aunt, apt
акт, акр, игл, игр, ость, альф

(10) aked, aunts, asks, eights, acts, elks
искр, астр

(11) spleens, springs, sprawls, sprains, strains, screams;
вскользь, всласть, вдрызг, взвизг

(12) serpents, patents, students, servants, licensed;
монстр, ханств, царств, земств, чувств

(13) spleen, split, street, struck, squeek, scroll;
взлом, вздеть, сдвиг, сгнить, взмах, взрыв

(14) twiddle, trance, plosion, flask, flint, thrust;
цвесть, фланг, внутрь, швабр, скетч

(15) stamps, tramps, twelfth, cleansed, clenched, еггапЖ»;
спектр, ксеркс, сфинкс

*2, (a) Divide these words into phonetic syllables, (b) Give their syllable structural^ patterns.

people, bugle, satchel, trifle, rhythm, April, equal, happens, mar­bles, patterns, dragons, urgent, servant, listened, heralds, errands, parents, tangents, patients, scaffold?

*3. Define the number of syllables in these words according to the sonority theory.

alone, female, unfortunate, insufficient, machine, unimportant, yesterday, aristocracy, appetite, remarkable, solecism, misunder­stand, inferiority, window, tomato, satisfactory, electrification

4. Mark initially strong consonants with a single line and initially weak con» sonants with^two Tines.

, la-пи, ii:-te, llai-пэ, ‘sek-ta, ‘bu-tl, U:-gl, , j

‘глд-bi, ‘mi-dl, ‘wm-ta, ‘лп-пэип, msep, film

S. Supply each word of exercise 4 with the corresponding arc of loudness.

a. Read these examples to prote the semantic importance^ of the correct syl­lable boundarv. Mark dose juncture by pluses,

a nation—an Asian see Mable—seem able

a nice house—an ice house it swings—its wings

the tall boys—that all boys хлеб с ухой—хлеб сухой

до дела ли—доделала по машинам—помаши нам

*7. Analyse these words from the viewpoint of phonetic and orthographic syllable division; transcribe and divide them into syllabographs.

work, working, worker, pined, pining, stirring, occurred, cured, cheerless, curing, cheering, firing, redder, nation, culture, thoroughly

Control Tasks

*1. Arrange these words into three columns according to the type of syllable structure: (a) closed uncovered, (b) closed covered, (c) open covered.

took, pray, lifts, at, straw, boy, aunt, texts, clenched, tip, pea, struck, strays, elks, thrust, bet, fact, fret, asks, ebbed, price

мгла, рад, ил, ЗАГС, кто, от, горсть, та, астр, скетч, взрыв, всласть, сфинкс, чувств, сон, Минск, гипс, здесь, злак, что

*2. Write out: (a) initially weak (finally strong) and (b) finally weak (ini­tially strong) consonants.

sit, lame, back, miss, sack, grave, tip, tide, top, late, mad, made, nine, till, cake, thick, bat, pin, pine, hate, act, ice, plot, face, hid, fate, stamp, spot, pile, land, mist, mole, mark, gold, cap, nose, fix, harm, merry, horn, start, form

*3. Divide these words into phonetic syllables.

comfortable, cottage, orchard, ground, kitchen, pantry, study, sev­eral, upstairs, bedroom, nursery, bathroom, furniture, modern, own, electricity, January, February, August, September, October, Novem­ber, December, Wednesday, Tuesday, Thursday

*4. Divide these words into syllabographs (where possible).

parents, fire, plural, rural, dinner, marry, disappear, speaking, writing, playing, walking, standing, passing, breakfast, potatoes, tomatoes, coffee, cabbage, bananas, berries, pudding, pears, beer, shopping, ironing, housework, mistake, fishing

*S. Mark with / / open Juncture in the examples below. Turn them into exam­ples with close juncture.

a name for it; a black tie; not at all; that’s tough; I saw her rise; the waiter cut it; Isawthem eat; why choose; my train; keep sticking; gray day


Any word spoken in isolation has at least one prominent syllable. We perceive it as stressed. Stress in the isolated word is termed word stress, stress in connected speech is termed sentence stress. Stress is indicated by placing a stress mark before the stressed syllable: 14.

Stress is defined differently by different authors, B. A. Bogorodi-tsky, for instance, defined stress as an increase of energy, accompanied by an increase of expiratory and articulatory activity. D. Jones de­fined stress as the degree of force, which is accompanied by a strong force of exhalation and gives an impression of loudness. H. Sweet also> stated that stress is connected with the force of breath. Later, however, D. Jones wrote, that «stress or prominence is effected … by inherent sonority, vowel and consonant length and by intonation.»lA, C, Gim-son also admits that a more prominent syllable is accompanied by pitch changes in the voice, quality and quantity of the accented! sounds.

If we compare stressed and unstressed syllables in the words. contract /’kuntrsekt/ договор, to contract /ta kan’trsekt/ заключать договор, we may note that in the stressed syllable:

(a) the force of utterance is greater, which is connected with more
energetic articulation;

(b) the pitch of the voice is higher, which is connected with strong­
er tenseness of the vocal cords and the walls of the resonance chamber;

(c) the quantity of the vowel /se/ in /ksn’trsekt/ is greater, the
vowel becomes longer;

(d) the quality of the vowel /se/ in the stressed syllable is differ­
ent from the quality of this vowel in the unstressed position, in which
it is more narrow than /’se/.

On the auditory level a stressed syllable is the part of the word, which has a special prominence. It is produced by a greater loudness and length, modifications in the pitch and quality. Their physical correlates are: intensity, duration, frequency and the formant struc­ture. All these features can be analysed on the acoustic level.

Word stress can be defined as the singling out of one or more syl­lables in a word, which is accompanied by the change of the force of utterance, pitch of the voice, qualitative and quantitative charac­teristics of the sound, which is usually a vowel.

In different languages one of the factors constituting word stress is usually more significant than the others. According to the most important feature different types of word stress are distinguished in different languages.

1) If special prominence in a stressed syllable or syllables is achieved mainly through the intensity of articulation, such type of stress is called dynamic, or force stress.

II. Accommodation, reduction, elision1Jones D. An Outline of English Phonetics.— 9th ed.— Cambridge, 1960,—P. 247.

2) If special prominence in a stressed syllable is achieved mainly
through the change of pitch, or musical tone, such accent is called
musical, or tonic. It is characteristic of the Japanese, Korean and
other oriental languages.

3) If special prominence in a stressed syllable is achieved through
the changes in the quantity of the vowels, which are longer in the
stressed syllables than in the unstressed ones, such type of stress is
called quantitative.

4) Qualitative type of stress is achieved through the changes in
the quality of the vowel under stress.

English word stress is traditionally defined as dynamic, but in faet, the special prominence of the stressed syllables is manifested in the English language not only through the increase of intensity, but also through the changes in the vowel quantity, consonant and vowel quality and pitch of the voice.

Russian word stress is not only dynamic but mostly quantita­tive and qualitative. The length of the Russian vowels always depends on the position in a word. The quality of unaccented vowels in Russian may differ greatly from the quality of the same vowels under stress, e.g. /a/ in травы, травь’1, травяной is realized as /a, 5, ъ/. /а, о, э/ undergo the greatest changes, /y/ and /и/ are not so much reduced when unstressed.

Stress difficulties peculiar to the accentual structure of the English language are connected with the vowel special and inher­ent prominence. In identical positions the intensity of English vowels is different. The highest in intensity is /a/, then go /э:, з:, i:, u:, se, u, e, u, i/.

The quantity of long vowels and diphthongs can be preserved in (a) pretonic and (b) post-tonic position.

a) idea /ai’dra/ b) placard /iplsekad/

sarcastic /saiksestik/ railway /ireriwei/
archaic /aikeuk/ compound /ifc»mpaund/

All English vowels may occur in accented syllables, the only exception is /э/, which is never stressed. English vowels /i, u, эй/ tend to occur in unstressed syllables. Syllables with the syllabic /1, m, n/ are never stressed.

Unstressed diphthongs may partially lose their glide quality.

In stressed syllables ^English stops have complete closure, frica­tives have full friction, features of fortis/lenis distinction are clearly defined.

tress can be characterized as fixed and free. In languages with fixed type of stress the place of stress is always the same. For example in Czech and Slovak the stress regularly falls on the first syllable. In Italian, Welsh, Polish it is on the penultimate syllable.

In English and Russian word-stress is free, that is it may fall on any syllable in a word:

on the first—^mother мама

on the second—occasion возможность

on the third—deWnation детонация

Stress in English and in Russian is not only free but also shifting. In both languages the place of stress may shift, which helps to differentiate different parts of speech, e.g. Hnsultto ШтИ, Hmportto imSpoH. In Russian: $зко, кисло, мало are adjectives, узко, кисло, мало are adverbs, что, как, когда may be pronouns and conjunctions: что читаетчто читает; как вошелкак вошел; когда уехалкогда уехал.

In English ^billow is морской вал, beUowвниз. Similar cases can be observed in Russian: му~камука, замокзамок, кружки кружки.

When the shifting of word-stress serves to perform distinctive function, V. Vassilyev terms this suprasegmental phonological unit form distinctive accenteme, when it serves to distinguish the meaning of different words, its term is word-distinctive accenteme.

Stress performs not only distinctive function, it helps to constitute and recognize words and their forms (constitutive and recognitive functions).

Strictly speaking, a polysyllabic word has as many degrees of stress as there are syllables in it. American and English phoneticians give the following pattern of stress distribution in the word examina­tion. They mark the strongest syllable with primary accent with the numeral 1, then goes 2, 3, etc.

It is more convenient and vivid to represent this pattern of stress distribution in the following way.

i g, ъ аз m r n ei
3 2 4 i

,0 p 8 tlUinit I 1 V Ь 1 5 3 1

II. Accommodation, reduction, elision The number of lines corresponds to the number of syllables in a word. The primary strongest stress mark is placed on the highest line, the second strongest one is placed on the second line, the other stress marks are distributed on the appropriate lines according to accentual sonority. The vertical lines, drawn perpendicularly to the lowest line vividly show the degree of accentual sonority of the syllabic phonemes and the height of the voice pitch, which is bigger within the strongest syllable, smaller within the second strongest syllable, etc.

The least strong syllable has the lowest sonority and pitch (5 in

our examples). Such graphs help to visualize the greater intensity of syllables with primary and secondary stress compared to other,, less prominent syllables.

There is some controversy about degrees of the word-stress termin­ology and about placing the stress marks. Most British phoneticians term the strongest stress primary, the second strongest secondary and all the other degrees of stress weak. The stress marks placed before the stressed syllables indicate simultaneously their places and the point of syllable division: examination.

American descriptivists (B. Bloch, G. Träger) distinguish the following degrees of word-stress: loud /i/, reduced loud /»/, medi­al /V, weak, which is not indicated. H. A. Gleason defines the degrees of stress as primary 14, secondary /»/, tertiary /7, weak /»/, (H. Sweet distinguishes weak /v/, medium, or half-strong (:{, strong /7 and extrastrong, or emphatic stress /;/.

V. A. Vassilyev, D. Jones, R. Kingdon consider that there are three degrees of word-stress in English: primary—strong, secon­dary—partial, weak—in unstressed syllables. For example: certif­ication /|S3:tifiikeiJ»ön/—the second and the third syllables have weak stress, which is not marked.

Most English scientists place the stress marks before the stressed syllables and don’t mark monosyllabic words.

Some American scientists suggest placing the stress marks above the vowels of the stressed syllable, e.g. blackbird /ЫгекЬз:а/. They place the stress marks even on monosyllabic words, e. g. cat, penY map.

In the Russian word-stress system there are two degrees of word accent: primary and weak. The stress marks in the Russian pho­netic tradition are placed above the vowels which are the nuclei of the syllable, e. g. усердней с каждым днем гляжу» в словарь.

The dictionary of accent for TV and radio workers gives some words with two stresses /7-—primary, /7—secondary (побочное), e.g. автокорд, водоналивной, библиотековедение, агрометеорология.

Some scientists distinguish between stressed and accented syl­lables. O’Connor states: «Accent … is indicated by stress and pitch combined. If a stress occurs … without a downward step in pitch, the word concerned is not accented.» Stressed syllables in the text have the symbol /i/, accented syllables have the sym­bol /’/. For example: Are you doming back again onfiunday? On tonograms stressed and unstressed syllables, according to O’Connor, * correspond to big and small dots.

Gimson suggests marking accentual elements in the following way:

j —a black dot with a downward curve corresponds to the syllable, receiving primary accent.

II. Accommodation, reduction, elision1 O’Connor I. D., Arnold 0. F. Intonation of Colloquial English.— L.„ 1959.—P. 18.


„°—a black dot, or a «white» dot correspond to the syllable receiving secondary accent.

.—a tiny dot corresponds to the unaccented syllable. Here are some accentual patterns for 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6- and 7-, 9- syllable words according to Gimson’s representation:1

• * unknown ; female, window *

• ■ • quantity, yesterday; tobacco, tomato ■ ‘

• * ■ remarkable, impossible; conterattack > ■ • a

…………. affiliation, consideration;rehabilitate • • > • •

° ■ ■ • » • ■ • characteristically

• • • • • unilateralism; internationalization • ■ • • • ■ »•

In spite of the fact that word accent in the English stress system is free, there are certain factors that determine the place and different degree of word-stress. V. A. Vassilyev describes them as follows:

(1) recessive tendency, (2) rhythmic tendency, (3) retentive tend­ency and (4) semantic factor.

(1) Recessive tendency results in placing the word-stress on the initial syllable. It can be of two sub-types: (a) unrestricted reces­sive accent, which falls ön the first syllable: father /’faSs/, mother /’тлЗэ/ and (b) restricted recessive accent, which is characterized Ъу placing the word accent on the root of the word if this word Jias a prefix, which has lost its meaning: become /Ь1<клт/, begin bi

(2) Rhythmic tendency results in alternating stressed and un­
stressed syllables, e.g. pronunciation /ргэ|1Ш151!е1,Гэ>п/.

(3) Retentive tendency consists in the retention of the primary
.accent on the parent word, e.g. personpersonal /ip3:sn—!ps:snl/.
More commonly it is retained on the parent word as a secondary
accent, e.g. similar—similarity /’stmib—isnniHaentr/.

(4) Semantic factor.

Given below are the rules of word-stress in English:

1. In words of 2 or 3 syllables the primary stress mostly falls
on the first syllable, e.g. terror, Cabinet, ^sensible.

2. In prefixal words the primary stress typically falls on the
syllable following the prefix, e.g. impossible, recall, behind.

3. In prefixal words with prefixes having their own meaning,
the place of stress is on the prefix, e. g. ^anti-capitalist, non-Party,
^ex-minister, ■ W ice-president, ^ultra-fashionable,

4. In prefixal verbs which are distinguished from similarly
spelt nouns and adjectives, the place of stress is on the second
syllable, nouns and adjectives have their stress on the initial syl-
}al>le, e.g.

verb noun adjective

to compound — ‘compound

to in’crease I increase —

1Gimson A. C. Op. cit.

5. Suffixes: -esce, -esque, -ate, -ize, -fy, -ette, -ique, -ее, -eer,
-ade have the place of stress on the preceding syllable or en them­
selves, e.g. [picturesque, Cigairette, technique, reeree, рШпеег,
tnarVnade, fluaWfy, tspecia4ize, dictate.

6. Suffixes: -ical, -ic, -ion, -ity, -ian, -dent, -ieticy, -eous,
-ual, -uous, -ety, -itous, -ive, -ative (-Hive), -itude, -ident, -inal,
-ital, -wards have the place of stress on the preceding syllable,
e.g. economic, grammatical, position, majority, ^special, etc.

7. In words of four or more syllables the place of stress is’on
the antepenultimate syllable (third from the end), e.g. Emergency f
caHamity, historical.

In compound words the first element is stressed when:

1. compounds are written as one word, e. g. lappletree, ^bedroom?
^caretaker, ‘watchdog, ^downcast;

2. nouns are compounded of a verb and an adverb, e. g. a pick­
up, a ^make-up;

3. nouns in the possessive case are followed by another noun»
e. g. a doWs house, Hady’s maid.

In compound words the second element is stressed when:

1. food items have the first element which is of a material
used in manufacturing the whole, e. g. apple Hart’,

2. names of roads, parks and squares are implied, e. g. CaUhe-
dral iRoad, Park Wace
(but CaHhedral street);

3. parts of the house and other buildings are implied, e.g.
front idoor, kitchen ^window;

4. adjectives with past participles characterizing’personsi e.g..
thick-skinned, cold-blooded (but downcast);

5. compound nouns ending in -er or -ing are followed by an1
adverb, e.g. passer iby, summing ‘кр.

Two equal stresses are observed: (a) in composite verbs, e.g* to igive up, to come If«;

(b) in numerals from 13 to 19, e.g. six4een, ififHeen. The semantic factor is observed in compounds:

(a) when compound nouns denote a single idea, e. g. ^blacksmith
(кузнец), ^walking stick (палка, трость); drawing room (гости­

(b) when the first element of the compound is most important
e. g. birthday (день рождения), darning needle (штопальная игла;
Am. стрекоза);

(c) when the first element of the compound is contrasted with
some other word, e.g. flute player (флейтист), not ЫоШ player

(d) when a compound is very common and frequently used it
may have a single stress, e.g. midsummer (середина11 лета); ^mid­

The rhythmic tendency is very strong in modem English. Due to its influence there are such accentual variants as: capitalist /■toepitehst/, /katprtelist/, hospitable /Urespitebl/, /hesipitebl/, etc..

In sentences words with two equal stresses can be pronounced!

with one single stress Runder the influence of rhythm, e. g. Uhir-Heen, but: Her ^number is Ukirteen ^hundred.

Under the influence of rhythm a shifting of word-stress can be observed in words with secondary stress, e. g.: [qualificationljust qualification^qualification (emphatic variant).

The rhythmic stress affects the stress pattern of a great number of words in the English language. This results in the secondary accent, e. g. refugee, employ^ee, engineer, picturesque, occupation, recommendation, etc.

Under the influence of rhythm compounds of three elements may have a single stress on the second element; e.g. hot iwater bottle грелка, waste paper basket корзина для ненужных бумаг (hoi water bottle, waste paper basket may also occur.).

In everyday speech the following variants of stress patterns can also be observed:

J. stylistically conditioned accentual variants, e. g. territory /jteriib:n/ (full style)—/itentri/ (rapid colloquial style);

Similar cases can be observed in Russian, e. g. п/А/игёл, which is pronounced in full style, and п/ъ/шёл, pronounced in rapid col­loquial style. Творог /твбрък/, /твлрбк/—both variants are correct.
Free accentual variants should not be confused with orthoe-pically incorrect accentuation.
According to the data given by Soviet and foreign phoneticians-the most common types of English stress pattern are:
in two-syllable words — —, e.g. after
—1, e.g. before
in three-syllable words ——— , e.g. family
I—, e.g. importance

2. individual, free accentual variants, e.g. hospitable/ ihospitabl/,



1. How is stress defined by different authors? 2. What is stress on the auditory, articulatory and acoustic level? 3. What types of word-stress do you know? 4. To what type of word-stress does the English accentual structure belong? 5. To what type of word-stress does the Russian accentual structure belong? 6. What is the difference between stressed vocalism in English and in Russian? 7. What is the differ­ence between fixed and free type of word-stress? 8. What is the shifting of word-stress? 9. How does stress perform constitutive, distinctive and recognitive functions? 10. How can the stress patterns be represent^ ed graphically? 11. What is the terminology suggested by different authors to distinguish betwen different degrees of word-stress? 12. How is stress represented in written form? 13. How does Gimson mark accentual elements? 14. What factors determine the place and differ­ent degree of word-stress? 16. What rules of word-stress do you know a) for prefixal words, b) for compound words? 16. How does theseman-

tic factor affect the place of word-stress? 17. How does the rhythmic tendency influence word-stress system in modern English? 18. What are the most common types of English stress patterns?


*I. Read these compound words with two equal stresses and translate them.

unaided /lAn’eidid] repack /irkipaek/

tmalienable Ллп’еи^пэЫ/ prepaid /’prUpeid/

unaltered /’лп’э:1Ы/ misspell /imis’spel/

unarmed /Uniarad/ misuse /imis’ju:z/

unaspirated /lAn’sespireitid/ misrule /’mis’ru:l/

unclean /’лп’кШп/ misquote /’mis’kwaut/

anticyclonic /lantisai’kkmik/ misplace /’misipleis/

anti-national /isentilnaej9nl/ under-dressed /Undaidrest/

non-payment /’mm! pennant/ underoificer ^Andatofisa/

non-resident /’monirezidsnt/ underpopulated /’d’j
non-stop /inon’stup/ leitid/

ex-minister /leks1 minis tg/ vice-adrairal /ivais’eedmiral/

reopen /’гк’эирэп/ vice-consul /’vais’konsal/

reorganize /’г1:’э:дэпак/ pre-history /iprh’histan/

ultra-modern /’Иа

*2. Read these compound adjectives with two equal stresses and translate them.

igood-ilooking, !old-!fashioned, ‘bad-‘tempered, labsent-imindedf fbare-‘headed, inome-imade

Note. When a compound adjective has a synonym to its first element, the stress is on the first element:

!oval-shaped=oyal Syellow ish-! ooking=yellowish Jsquare-sha ped=square Igreenish-Iooking=greenish

3. Read these composite verbs with two equal stresses,

‘carry ‘out выполнять igo ‘on продолжать

‘come a!cross встречать ‘point ‘out указывать

iget ‘up вставать ‘put ion надевать

‘see ‘off провожать isit idown садиться

‘set lup устанавливать Hake ‘off снимать (одежду)
ifall ‘out ссориться; выпадать ifall ‘back отступать

imake ‘up мириться iget ‘back возвращаться

‘blow ‘out взрываться ibring ‘forth производить

Ipick ‘out выбирать ‘fix lup устраивать

*4. Read these compound words with one single stress on the first, most im­portant part of the compound, and translate them.

apple-tree, bystander, daybreak, birthday, sheep dog, pillow­case, school-boy, suit-case, time-table, inkpot, hair-do, housewife, eve­rything, fire-place, broadcast, fountain-pen, anyone


*5. Read these compound nouns with one stress denoting a single idea and translate them.

butterfly, newcomer, butter-fingers, blacksmith, greatcoat, air­plane, bluebottle, butter-boat, butterdish, bookmark

*6. Read these pairs of words. Translate them into Russian, mind the seman­tic importance of word-stress (distinctive and recognitive function).

^blackboard—’black ‘board ‘overwork—’over ‘work ‘blackbird—’black ‘bird ‘yellow-cup—’yellow ‘cup ‘strongbox—’strong ‘box ‘tallboy—’tall ‘boy

7. Read these pairs of words. Translate them into Russian, mind the impor­
tance of the form-distinctive accenteine.

‘abstract—to ab’stract ‘desert—to de’sert

‘commune—to co’mmune ‘forecast—to fore’cast

‘compound—to com’pound ‘import—to im’port

^conflict—to conflict ‘outgo—to out’go

‘contest—to con’test ‘produce—to pro’duce

8. Translate these words. Mind the position of secondary stress on the first
syllable in the (a) column and on the second syllable in the (b) column.

(a) ,modification (b) ad,minis’tration

,oma mentation a,f filiation

,qualification assimilation

,represenitation consideration

,archaeo4ogical e,xami’nation

,tempera’ mental pro,nunci ‘ation

,aristo’cratic an,tago’nistic

,mathematician academician

9. Mark the accentual elements of these words according to Gimson’s accen­
tual patterns. Read them.

2-syttable words: female, window, profile, over, under, cotton, table, husband

3-syltabte words: important, excessive, relation, appetite, photog­raph, telephone

4-sytlabte words: unimportant, insufficient, melancholy, caterpil­lar, criticism, capitalize

5’Syttable words: satisfactory, aristocracy, administrative, empi­ricism, consideration, circumlocution

6-sytlabte words: variability, meteorological, autobiographic, identification

7-and 8-syllable words: unreliability, industrialization, impenetra­bility, unilateralism, uninteligibility

10. Read the sentences below to prove the distinctive function of the stress. Translate them into Russian.

1. ‘Contrast makes it seem better. 2. ‘Export is forbidden.
Contrast Tom with his sister. Ex’port cotton goods.
It’s because of ‘contrast. These goods the cities ex’port.

It’s because they con’trast,

3. This ‘forecast was wrong. 4. A iprefix is added.

I like his iforecast. Pre’fix a paragraph to Chap-

ter I.
It’s what they forecast. It’s a ‘prefix.

It’s a paragraph they decided to pre’fix.

5. He is a ‘suspect. 6. They gave way without » pro-

He is the man we susipect. test.

The ‘suspect is here. They decided to pro’test.

We susipect this man. This iprotest was wrong.

Protest against it.

11. Put down the stress marks in the words below. Read them according to the model.

Model:qualification — ljust [qualification (emphatic variant)

centralization, modification, composition, nationalization, orga­nization, anticipation, intercession, overbalance, justification, hos­pitality, satisfactory, sentimentality, impossibility, idiomatic, ar­tificial, unaccountable, fundamental, distribution, representation, characteristic, ornamentation, interrogation, administration

2. Put down the stress marks in the words below. Tran late them into Rus sian and read according to the stress pattern.

ascertain, acquiesce, grotesque, cigarette, antique, saloon, emplo­yee, career, lemonade, atomic, phonetic, phonological, familiarity, proletarian, beneficial, efficient, aqueous, residual, impetuous, pro­priety, active, relative, gratitude, attitudinal, sagittal, upwards


*1. Provide these words with necessary stress marks.

;ir-raid, birdcage, coalmine, teapot, washstand, mail-bag, dance-music, grandfather, handwriting, shopkeeper, ladybird, office-boy, waiting-room, dinner-jacket, tape recorder, labour exchange, ground floor, knee-deep, cross-question, flat-footed, shop-window, hot-water-bottle, waste-paper-basket, post-graduate, vice-chancellor, second­hand

*2. Transcribe the words and put down stress marks in these verbs and nouns. Translate them.

absent n—absent v combine n—combine v

compress n~ compress v concert n—concert v

consort n—consort v desert n—desert v

produce n—produce v outlay n—outlay v
infix n—infix v

3. Give examples to show the existence of word and form-distinctive accen-
tcmes in English and in Russian.

4. Give examples of the most common stress patterns in English,

5. Give examples to illustrate the rules of word-stress for a) prefixal words;
b) compound words.

6. Give examples to prove the importance of a) the rhythmic tendency and b>
the semantic factor for the system of English word-stress.


1. The abstract is short. Abstract this theory. 2. This accent is on. the first syllable. Mark it with a weak accent. He accents the word» It’s the word «son» you are to accent. 3. A conflict took place. They conflict with this theory. It’s finished in a conflict. Still, they con­flict. 4. The contest wasfriendly. They contest this statement. It’s a contest. They contest it. 5. The contract was signed. They contract serious diseases. It’s a contract. These diseases they contract.

9. Read the following compounds. Translate them into Russian.

‘throw-back, Uook-out, fflashbacki Qie-idown, ‘look-iround, lali iin, ‘head ‘first, ‘head-‘on, iknocker-lup,ilooker-‘on, ‘runner-lup, iwash-ing-‘up, ‘pick-up


In actual speech there is a great number of words which are pro­nounced in the weak or contracted form. They are more common than non-contracted or full forms. It applies to all styles and different man­ner of speech — formal or informal, slow or rapid tempo.

Given below are the lists of essential weak and contracted forms.

The Use of Weak and Contracted Forms

1. If a word is stressed the strong form must be used.

2. Strong forms are used at the end of the intonation group
<even if the word is unstressed, e.g.

Where did Mary come irom? /Iwss did imsan 4клт fn>m/

The only exceptions are pronouns. They retain the weak form in final position, e.g.

John suspects her./idstm sas^pekts Ьэ/ We adore them, /wi- svdo: 5эт/

3. Demonstrative pronoun thatalways has the strong form (even
if not stressed), e.g.

That’s exactly what I want. /Basts igizaekth wot ai ,wont/ That play I saw was wonderful. /9set iplei ai iso: wsz »d

4. Weak forms ending in /э/ are not used before vowels (see
table for special forms).

5. The weak forms of words beginning with /h/, e. g. have, has,
lie, him, etc. may or may not be preceded by /h/. The /h/ is in­
variably used following a pause, for example at the beginning of
a sentence. In other cases the use of the /h/-forms is in free varia­
tion with /h/-less forms.

6. Haveas a main verb is usually in the strong form, s de­
laines contracted forms with have may be used: I’ve, we’ve, they’ve
{never he has, she has), e.g.

‘I’ve, ‘we’ve, ithey’ve a ‘bit of a problem, /’aiv, ‘wi:v, iSeiv э ‘bit 9v эчртЫзт/

7. Scnorants /1, m, n/ in contracted forms are typically syllabic.

I John111 come. /1(%оп1хклт/ ibread and vbuiter /’oread n

8. <ls> is pronounced as /z/ after all lenis (excluding /z, 5,
and after vowels:

Tibs 7

Essential Weak Forms

Class Word Weak Forms
articles a an the /э/ not before vowels /эп, n/ only before vowels /?a, ffi/ before vowels
conjunctions and as than that
but or
/and, an, n/ /az/ /San/; /ffsen/ is hardly ever used /Sat/ /bat/ /o-, a/ before consonants /эт, or/ before vowels
particles there to /ffa/ before consonants /0эг/ before vowels /ta/ before consonants /tu/ before vowels
prepositions at for from of to’ into through /at/ /fa/; /far/ before vowels /fram/ /av/: /a/ often used before /ö/ /ta/; /tu:, tu/ used before vowels /mta/; /intu/ before vowels /Bra/
verb be am (‘m’) are (‘re) is (‘s) was were /эт, т/ /a/; /ar/ before vowels /s, z/
/wa/; /war/ used before vowels
auxiliary v^rh have has (‘s) have (‘ve) had (*d) /az, s, z/ /av, V/ /ad, d/
other auxiliary and modal verbs do does can will shall would should must could /da, du/
AM/» /ad, d/ /sd, d/ /mast, mas/ /kud, kd/



Class Word Weak Forms
pronouns them us our you he she we me her /Ээт, EFm/ /as/ /a-/ (is also used in stressed contexts)
/juV. /Ju/ /hi, hi, t, i/
/Л. Л/ /wi, wi/ /mi, mi/ /ha, з:/; /э/ before consonants
negatives not nor /not, at/ /no/ before consonants /пэг/ before vowels

Essential Contracted Forms

Deriva­tion Full Form Written Con­tracted Form Spoken Con­tracted Form Comments
be I am
you are
he is she is it is we are they are
I’m you’re
he’s she’s it’s we’re they’re
/aim/ /jo:, jua/
/hfcz/ »
/W* /its/ /’wte/ /Зеэг/
Лкг, juar/ before vowels
/wfcar/ «1 before /Эеэг/ / vowels
have I have you have
he has she has it has we have they have
I’ve you’ve
he’s she’s it’s we’ve they’ve
/aiv/ /J«v/ *
/its/ /wkv/» /9eiv/
Not necessarily used if have is a main verb. Cannot be used iF have is a main verb.
Not necessarily used if have is a main verb.
shall will I shall you will he will she will I’ll you’ll he’ll she’ll /ail/ г Ä/  

These may be contracted /tiB, Jiz, w», Juv, wiv, Jul, wid, Jud/,


Deriva­tion Full Form Written Con­tracted Form Spoken Con­tracted Form Comments
  it will we shall/will they will tfii
we’ll they’ll
/’Itl/ /Wi:l/ /foil/  
had should/ would I had (should) would you had (should) would he had/would she had/would it had/would we had/would they had/would I’d
he’d she’d it’d we’d they’d
/aid/ /jad/
/hi;d/ Affcd/ /itad/ /wfcd/ /Seid/
Context usually makes it clear whether had or should/ would is meant.
not are not were not do not shall not will not cannot must not dare not aren’t weren’t don’t shan’t won’t can’t mustn’t daren’t /d;nt/1 /wa:nt/ /daunt/ /Jamt/ /waunt/ Aant/ /’nusnt/ /desnt/ Also used in aren’t. All auxiliaries may combine with n’t to form contracted forms and only the most significant and/or irregular are given here. There are many more such as isn’t, wasn’t, couldn’t, shouldn’t /iznt, woznt, kudnt, ‘Judnt/.
let let us let’s /lets/ Only as auxiliary verb.
there there is there are
there wil! there would
there’s there are
there’ll there’d
/Эеэг, Яег, Ээг/ /Яеагэ, Зегэ/
/Эта!, »э1/ /Dead, ifed/
/’ffearer, ‘Эегэг/ be­fore vowels

The older contracted form of aren’t and Isn’twas uln’t.This Is tiowheard only In
7-182 193

iBob’s vhere. /ob t/ iVan’s ,come. /ivsenz чклт/ Boy’s gone, /tboiz vgon/

<is> is pronounced as /s/ after the fortis (excluding /s, X, tf/)j

Uack’s here, /’dsseks vhi3/ (Robert’s gone, /irrjbsts %gon’ I Pete’s come. /ipi:ts 4клт/

<is> is pronounced as /iz/ after /s, z, J1, g, t)7, <has> is pro­nounced as /3z/, e.g.

Max is coming later, /imseks iz ikAmirj Jeite/

Mr. Hodge has arrived, /miste ‘tradj эг a,raivd/

Jones has decided to leave, /icfceunz ez difsaidid ta %li:v/

9. Some common grammatical words do not have a regular weak form, e.g.

on, up, when, then, one, what, where

As has already been mentioned, unstressed vowels in English may either change their quality and quantity or remain unchanged. For example the indefinite article a may be pronounced as /э/, which differs from /ei/ qualitatively. He may be pronounced as /hi’/ which diilers from /hi:/ quantitatively. In the word potato the final /9U/ remains unchanged though it occurs in an unaccented syllable /pa’teitsu/.

The major role in the system of unstressed vocalism in English belongs to the neutral vowel /a/. It originated as a result of the development of the analytical grammar structures, which led to the reduction of some vowels not only in inflexions but also in other parts of lexical and grammatical words.

According to the data of modern phoneticians /i, э, u, ou/ are always unstressed, /ei, ai/ are unstressed rather often, /d:, л, э: au, is/ are rarely unstressed, ja., u:, i:, 01, еэ, иэ/ are practically never unstressed.

The neutral vowel /з/ may alternate with any vowel of full formation, e.g.

/i:/—/э/ the /5i:/— the lesson /Зэ Uesn/

/e/—/9/ pence /pens/—three pence /trepans/

/se/—/э/ land /lsend/—England /lirjgfend/

/a/—/3/ particle /«ptttikl/—particular /psltikjula/

Ы—Ш a combine /э ikombain/—to combine /Ь кэт’Ьат/

/и/—/э/ fully /ifult/—playfully /ipleifah/

/и:/—/э/ to him /tu- him/—to the table /ta Ъ Iteibl/

/Л/—/Э/ some Mm/—tiresome /itaiasgm/

/3.7—/э/ herd /ha:d/—shepherd /!j»ep3d/.

/ei/—/э/ face /feis/—preface /iprefas/

/ai/—/э/ shire /J1 аю/—Yorkshire /ijo:kjty

/аи/—Ш mouth /mau0/—Plymouth /’рктэО/

/эй/—/э/ folk /fouk/—Norfolk /’пэ:Гэк/ /га/—/э/ revere /nivis/—reverence /irevarens/ /еэ/—/э/ there’s /Öeaz/—there’s S

On the phonological level the question arises about the phonemic status of the neutral vowel /э/. Is it an independent phoneme, or a va­riant of the phoneme with which it alternates? This question can be answered in terms of the distinctive function of the phoneme. In pairs like, for example, some /элт/ — some /sam/ /3/ performs distinctive function. In the sentence / read some /алт/ book some means «a certain». In the sentence / read some /sam/ books some means «several». Similar pairs in which the members differ in quality prove the independent phonemic status of the /э/ phoneme.

From the position of the Moscow and Leningrad phonological schools the relations between the vowel of full formation and /э/ in the pairs mentioned above should be viewed differently.

The representatives of the Moscow phonological school consider such relations to be interaHophonic, because Ы is considered by them in the pairs like /sAm/ — /ssm/ to be an allophone of the /л/ phoneme, or hyperphoneme.

The representatives of the Leningrad school state that in the above examples /3/ and /л/ undergo interphonemic changes and that they are separate phonemes.

In the Russian language vowels in unstressed syllables may coincide in speech. E.g. /0, a/ in the first pretonic syllable are both pronounced as /л/: /л/ ват, IЦ лень.

The peculiarity of the unstressed vocalism of Russian is that an unstressed vowel never preserves its full form. Cases like potato /pa’teitgu/, artistic /o:itistik/ are very common in English, e.g. /ib/ paragraph /ipasragrof/

conservatoire /kanJseivatva:/ radar /ireida:/, /ireida/ /1/ graduate /tgrsedjuit/

surface /’seihs/

effect /lifekt/

ticket /itikit/ /эй/ also /Id:Is9U/ zero /tziaröu/ /л/ tumult /ltju:mAlt/

There are some digraphs in English which are pronounced in unstressed syllables either as /э/ or /1/, e. g. er — teacher /ftiitfa/ ar—mortar /’mo:to/ or—motor /imauts/ et—foreign /iform/ ir—elixir /iihksa/ ie—hobbie /Ihobi/ ou(s)—famous /ifeimas/

7* 195


1. Are weak and contracted forms common for actual speech? 2. Give examples in which articles, conjunctions, particles and preposi­tions are pronounced in the weak forms. 3. Give examples in which the verbs to be, to have and the negatives not, nor are pronounced in the weak forms. 4. Give examples in which auxiliary verbs are pronounced in their weak forms. 5. What are essential contracted forms for the verbs to be, to have, shall, will, had should, would, for the nega­tive not, particles let, there} Use them in your own examples or in the examples taken from literature. 6. What rules for the use of weak and contracted forms do you know? 7. What role does the phoneme /э/ play in the system of unstressed vocalism? 8. With what vowels of full formation does hi alternate? 9. What phonological status does Ы possess? 10. What are the peculiar features of English unstressed vocalism?


•1. Transcribe these words. Single out the pairs of phonemes in which /э/ al­ternates with the vowel of full formation in the unstressed position.

armour (броня) —army (армия)

allusion (намек) —illusion (иллюзия)

tell ’em (скажи им) —tell him (скажи ему)

sitter (живая натура) —city (город)

forward (передний) —foreword (предисловие)

experiment (опыт) —experiment (экспериментиро­

some (некоторое количество) —some (некоторый, какой-то)

that (который, относительное —that (тот, указательное ме-

местоимение) стоимение)

variety (разнообразие) —various (различный)

estimable (достойный уважения) —estimate (оценивать)

*2. Transcribe these words. Underline the vowels of full formation in the un­stressed position.

protest n, content n, comment n, abstract adj, asphalt n, cannot, epoch, blackguard, export n, humbug, expert n, institute

*3. Transcribe these words. Read them. Mind the dropping off of hi in the unstressed position.

often, session, special, difficult, some, can, conference, dictionary, April, have

*4. a) Transcribe these words and underline the sounds of full formation in the pretonJc syllables, b) Give examples of Russian vowel reduction in a similar position.

emission usurp aorta

eleven Uganda oil-painting

ensign upturn coyote

abstract urbane aerologist

objective idea hereunder

orchestral outwit Eurasian

S. Read the exercise. Pay attention to the strong and weak forms which are singled out.

Red and white. /Ired (3)n,wait/ That man said: «That’s good.» /’Sset imaen vsed iSssts »gud/ Let’s do it tomorrow, /llets Idu: it ts.nrarau/ I’m a student, /aim э vstjudsnt/ These boys are naughty. /Jöi:z ‘boiz э 4no:ti/ These books are interesting. /I8i:z ibuks эг kin-tnstirj/ These bags are black. /’Öi:z ibsegz э Jilgsk/ Which is cor­rect? /iwitj* iz kajekt/ I have many books, /ai lhaev ‘mem vbuks/ He needs some books, /hi ‘ni:dz ssm vbuks/ I want some book, /ai iwont isAra ,buk/

Come for the ticket. /1клт fa 5з »tikit/ Come for a change, /1клт far 3 vfeind5/ Would you like to stay? /iwud ju Uaik ta 4stei/ Do you want to argue? /Idu ju iwrjnt tu ,agju:/ You shouldn’t have done it /ju Ijudnt av kdAn it/

Control Tasks

*1. Transcribe these words. Use them to illustrate the peculiar feature of the 2j [English unstressed vocalism,

latchkey, simplicity, protest n, skylark, pantheon, bulldog, out­door, dining-room, into, mildew, woodcut, heart-burn, humpback, highway, simplify, highbrow, convoy, rainbow, raincoat, underwear, armature

2. Give some examples from the English language to illustrate the qualitative
and quantitative changes of vowels in the unstressed position.

3. Prove the functional independence of the id phoneme in the English language.

*4. Transcribe the passage below. Write out some examples of the strong and weak forms. Mark them with SF, WF, accordingly.

The Guardian newspaper is famous for its misprints. Why, there is even a Guardian, misprint preserved in brass for posterity. Some years ago the El Vino wine bar decided to put up a plaque in honour of Philip Hope-Wallace, its most faithful and probably wittiest habit­ue. And so, mentioning his eminence as a wit, raconteur and critic, it was duly placed above his usual seat on the wall and unveiled at a small ritual.

‘I don’t want to seem ungrateful,’ said the recipient, peering at it closely, ‘but there’s only one «1» in Philip and you’ve put in two.’

‘How can that be?’ gasped the management. ‘We were careful to check with the Guardian.’


Intonation is a complex unity of non-segmental, or prosodic fea­tures of speech: 1. melody, pitch of the voice; 2. sentence stress; 3. temporal characteristics (duration, tempo, pausation); 4. rhythm; 5. tamber (voice quality).

Intonation is very important. It organizes a sentence, determines communicative types of sentences and clauses, divides sentences into intonation groups, gives prominence to words and phrases, expresses contrasts and attitudes. The two main functions of intonation are: communicative and expressive.

There are two main approaches to the problem of intonation in Great Britain. One is known as a contour analysis and the other may be called grammatical.

The first is represented by a large group of phoneticians: H. Sweet, D. Jones, G. Palmer, L. Armstrong, I. Ward, R. Kingdon, J. О ‘Con­nor, A. Gimson and others. It is traditional and widely used. Accord­ing to this approach the smallest unit to which linguistic meaning can be attached is a tone-group (sense-group). Their theory is based on the assumption that intonation consists of basic functional «blocks». They pay much attention to these «blocks» but not to the way they are connected. Intonation is treated by them as a layer that is superim­posed on the lexico-grammatical structure. In fact the aim of commu­nication determines the intonation structure not vice versa.

The grammatical approach to the study of intonation was worked out by M. Halliday, The main unit of intonation is a clause. Intona­tion is a complex of three systemic variables: tonality, tonicity and tone, which are connected with grammatical categories. Tonality marks the beginning and the end of a tone-group, Tonicity marks the focal point of each tone-group. Tone is the third unit in Halliday’s system. Tones can be primary and secondary. They convey the atti­tude of the speaker. Halliday’s theory is based on the syntactical function of intonation.

The founder of theTAmerican school of intonation is K. Pike. In his book «The Intonation of American English» he considers «pitch phonemes» and «contours» to’be the main units of intonation. He des­cribes different contours and their meanings, but the word «meaning» stands apart from communicative function of intonation. A. Anti-pova in her «System of English Intonation» characterizes the approach of the American school to the study of intonation system as «mechani­cal».


Speech melody or pitch of the voice is closely connected with sen­tence stress. Crystal states that «the only realizations of stress, which are linguistic, which are capable of creating an effect of relative pro­minence, of accent, are those which are effected with the complex

help of pitch, quantity and quality variations. The most important is pitch.» L

Successive contours of intonation singled out of the speech flow may be defined differently: sense-groups (semantic approach), breath-groups (extra-linguistic approach), tone groups (phonological definition)a intonation groups, tone (tonetic) units, pitch and stress patterns. Each tone unit has one peak of prominence in the form of a nuclear pitch movement and a slight pause after the nucleus that end the tone unit and is usually shorter than the term «pause» in pausation system.

The tone unit is one of the most important units of intonation theory. It contains one nucleus, which is often referred to as nuclear tone, or peak of prominence. The interval between the highesfand the lowest pitched syllable is called the range of a sense-group. The range usually depends on the pitch level: the higher the pitch, the wid­er the range. High, medium and low pitch of the voice is shown on the staves. The change of pitch within the last stressed syllable of the tone-group is called a nuclear tone. It may occur not only in the~nu-cleus but extend to the tail — terminal tone.

The inventory of tonal types given by different scholars is dif­ferent. Sweet distinguishes 8 tones: — level, ‘ high rising,, low ris­ing, лhigh falling, »low falling, vcompound rising, л compound falling, — rising-falling-rising. Palmer has four basic tones: falling, high rising, falling-rising, low rising. He also mentions high-fall­ing and «low level» and describes coordinating tonal sequences («» identical tone groups), and subordinating tonal sequences (■’ » dissimilar tone groups). Kingdon distinguishes high and low, normal and emphatic tones and gives rising, falling, falling-rising (divided and undivided), rising-falling, rising-falling-rising and level tone (the latter is not nuclear). O’Connor and Arnold give low and high falls and rises, rise-fall, fall-rise, and a compound fall 4- rise (the latter is considered a conflation of two simple tunes). Halliday recognizes seven major types, ‘, ,, л, v, 4 , л /.

Vassilyev gives ten tone units. He states that tones can be moving and level. Moving tones can be: simple, complex and compound. They are: Low Fall; High Wide Fall; High Narrow Fall; Low Rise; High Narrow Rise; High Wide Rise; Rise-Fall; Fall-Rise; Rise-Fall-Rise. The most common compound tones are: High Fall High Fall; High Fall 4- Low Rise. Level Tones can be pitched at High, Mid and Low level.

Methods of indicating intonation are different: wedge-like symbols, staves with dots and dashes, which correspond to unstressed and stressed syllables within the voice range, tonetic stress marks, numeri­cal system, etc. The system of staves is the most vivid, the system of

II. Accommodation, reduction, elision1 Crystal D. Prosodic Systems and Intonation in English.— Cambridge,
1969,— P. 120.

2 Crystal’s terminology.

tonetic symbols is the most economical and vivid, that’s why they are most popular in our textbooks.

‘The tonetic units that constitute the total tone pattern (contour) are the following:

1. unstressed and half stressed syllables preceding the first stressed
syllable constitute the prehead of the intonation group;

2. stressed and unstressed syllables up to the last stressed syllable
constitute the head, body or scale of the intonation group;

3. the last stressed syllable, within which fall or rise in the intona­
tion group is accomplished, is called the nucleus; the syllable marked
with the nuclear tone may take a level stress;

4. the syllables (or one syllable), that follow the nucleus, consti­
tute the tail, e.g.

It’s been a ‘very igood , even ing for me.


II. Accommodation, reduction, elision prehead

scale nucleus


The most important part of the intonation group is the nucleus, which carries nuclear stress (nuclear tone).

According to the changes in the voice pitch preheads can be: rising, mid and low:


Scales can be: descending, ascending and level.

According to the direction of pitch movement within and between syllables, descending and ascending scales can be: stepping, sliding and scandent;

descending stepping descending sliding descending scandent

ascending stepping

ascending sliding

ascending scandent

nmminiS 1 thef^dsшthe descending scale is made specially

SB5 th/f 1C4 arrrJs P]acedbefore the dash-mark which indicates the stressed syllable on the staves, or before the word

made specially prominent in the text—f/ accidental rise, e.g. ‘John

II. Accommodation, reduction, elisionII. Accommodation, reduction, elisionII. Accommodation, reduction, elision is |very tbusy.

This type of scale is called

II. Accommodation, reduction, elision up broken descending scale.

The falling tones convey completion and finality, they are categor­ic in character. The rising tones are incomplete and non-categoric. Of all the level tones mid level tone is used most frequently. The level tones may express hesitation and uncertainty.

Attitudinal function of intonation can be observed in utterances consisting of one word and in utterances consisting of more than a single word. In the latter cases it is not only that the type of the nu­cleus is important but also the pitch of the utterance preceding the nu­cleus: prehead and head. The attitudinal function of different tonal types in statements, special and general questions, commands and in­terjections is accurately and thoroughly described in the «Intonation of Colloquial English» by J. D. O’Connor and G. F. Arnold and in our textbooks on phonetics.


Sentence stress is a greater prominence of words, which are made more prominent in an intonation group. The special prominence of accented words is achieved through the greater force of utterance and changes in the direction of voice pitch, accompanied by changes in the quantity of the vowels under stress (in unstressed position vowels may undergo qualitative changes, see unstressed vocalism).

The difference between stress and accent is based on the fact that in the case of stress the dominant perceptual component is loudness, in the case of accent it is pitch. Degrees of stress in an utterance cor­relate with the pitch range system. Nuclear stress is the strongest — it carries the most important information. Non-nuclear stresses are subdivided into full and partial. Full stress occurs only in the head of an intonation group, partial stress occurs also in the prehead and tail. Partial stresses in the prehead are most frequently of a low va­riety, high partial stress can occur before a low head. Words given partial stress do not lose their prominence completely, they retain the whole quality of a vowel.

In tone-groups stress may undergo alternations under the influ­ence of rhythm, but there are some rules concerning words that are usually stressed or unstressed in an utterance.

Given below is the list of words that are usually stressed:

Nouns.1 Adjectives. Numerals. Interjections. Demonstrative pro­nouns. Emphatic pronouns. Possessive pronouns (absolute form). In­terrogative pronouns. Indefinite pronouns: somebody, someone, some­thing, anybody, anyone, anything (used as subject). Indefinite neg­ative pronouns: no, none, no one, nobody, nothing. Indefinite pro-

II. Accommodation, reduction, elision Such as «thing», «person», «place» are unstressed.

nouns some, any (expressing quality). Indefinite pronouns: all, each, every, other, either, both. Indefinite quantitative pronouns: much, many, a little, a few. Notional verbs. Auxiliary verbs (negative con­tracted forms). Two-word prepositions. Two-word conjunctions. Par­ticles: only, also, too, even, just.

The words that are usually unstressed:

Personal pronouns. Reflexive pronouns. Reciprocal pronouns. Relative pronouns.1 Possessive pronouns (conjoint form). Indefinite pronouns: somebody, someone, something, anybody, anyone, anything (used as object). Indefinite pronouns some, any (when expressing quan­tity). Auxiliary verbs2 (affirmative form). One-word prepositions and conjunctions. Articles. Particles: there, to. Modal verbs (contract­ed forms and general questions are exceptions).

The meaning of the verbs may, should, must changes depending on whether they «are stressed or unstressed, e. g. You ‘•may go — possi­bility. You may ‘go — permission.

Stresses in an utterance provide the basis for identification and understanding of the content, they help to perform constitutive, dis­tinctive and identificatory function of intonation. These functions are performed jointly with the pitch component of intonation.


Rhythm is the regular alternation of stressed and unstressed syl­lables. It^is’ so’typical of an English phrase that the incorrect rhythm betrays the non-English origin of the speaker even in cases of «cor­rect» pronunciation.

The’phenomenon of rhythm is closely connected with the phonetic nature of stress.

The units of the rhythmical structure of an utterance are stress groups от rhythmic groups. The perception of boundaries between rhythmic groups is associated with the stressed syllables or peaks of prominence.

Unstressed syllables have a tendency to cling to the preceding stressed syllables — enclitics, or to the following stressed syllables — proclitics. In English, as a rule, initial unstressed syllables cling to the following stressed syllables, non-initial unstressed syllables are enclitics:

**^~^ — usual rhythm pattern, .T>, — exceptions with the

initial unstressed syllables.

Each sense-group of the sentence is pronounced at approximately the same period of time, unstressed syllables are pronounced more

II. Accommodation, reduction, elision1 The pronoun which in non-defining clauses is usually stressed, e.g. I
gave him a spade, which tool he hid in the barn.

2 In general questions the affirmative forms may be stressed and unstres­

rapidly: the greater the number of unstressed syllables, the quicker they are pronounced. Proclitics are pronounced faster than enclitics. Rhythm is connected with sentence stress. Under the influence of rhythm words which are normally pronounced with two equally strong stresses may lose one of them, or may have their word stress realized differently, e. g.

‘Picca’dilly—-‘Piccadilly ‘Circus—’close to Picca’dilly

I princess—a ‘royal prin’cess

lindiarubber—a ‘piece of india’rubber—an Hndiarubber vball


Pausation is closely connected with the other components of into­nation. The number and the length of pauses affect the general tempo of speech. A slower tempo makes the utterance more prominent and more important. It is an additional means of expressing the speaker’s emotions.

Pauses made between two sentences are obligatory. They are longer than pauses between sense-groups and are marked by two paral­lel bars /Ц/. Pauses made between sense-groups are shorter than pauses made between sentences. They are marked I lt I l, I \L

Pauses are usually divided into filled and unfil ed, corresponding to voiced and silent pauses. Silent pauses are distinguished on the ba­sis of relative length: brief, unit, double and treble. Their length is relative to the tempo and rhythmicality norms of an individual. The exception is «end-of-utterance» pause, which length is controlled by the person who is about to speak.

Another subdivision of pauses is into breathing and hesitation.

Pauses play not only segmentative and delirnitative functions, they show relations between utterances and intonation groups, perform­ing a unifying, constitutive function. They play the semantic and syntactic role, e. g. There was no love tost between them (they loved each other). There was no love j lost between them (they did not love each other).

Attitudinal function of pausation can be affected through voiced pauses, which are used to signal hesitation, doubt, suspence. Such pauses have the quality of the central vowels /э, s:/. They may be used for emphasis, to attach special importance to the word, which follows it.

The tamber orTthe voice quality is a special colouring of the speak­er’s voice. It is used to express various emotions and moods, such as joy, anger, sadness, indignation, etc.

Tamber should not be equated with the voice quality only, which is the permanently present person-identifying background, it is a more general concept, applicable to the inherent resonances of any sound. It is studied along the lines of quality: whisper, breathy, creak, hus­ky, falsetto, resonant, and qualification: laugh, giggle, tremulousness, sob, cry (the list compiled by Cafford and Laver).


There are five verbal functional styles (also referred to as registers or discourses): 1. the belles-lettres style, 2. publicistic style, 3. news­paper style, 4. scientific prose style, 5. the style of official documents. In the case of oral representation of written texts we speak about into-national peculiarities of: descriptive and scientific prose, newspapers, drama, poetry, tales, public speeches, spontaneous speech and phatic communion. They are briefly the following:

Sense-groups. In reading descriptive and scientific prose, tales or newspaper material they depend on the syntax or the contents. They are shorter in drama than in descriptive and scientific prose, they are normally short in public speeches. In poetry the main unit is the line, which corresponds to a sense-group and consists of more than six syllables.

Tones. Mostly falling with a High Narrow Fall in non-final sense-groups of descriptive and scientific prose (High, Mid, Low Falls in final sense-groups, a Fall-Rise in non-final sense-group). Abrupt in reading newspaper. Simple and complex in final and non-final sense-groups in reading drama. Mostly slow falling, rising and level (the Level Tone is often combined with the High Level Scale). Compound tones: Fall Fall, Fall Level, Rise Fall — in reading poetry. The Rising Tone is more frequent in reading non-final groups of tales than in the descriptive prose. Complex tones are often used in the dia-logical parts. The tonetic contour of tales is characterized by pitch fluctuations. In public speeches Falling Tones in non-final sense-groups are more abrupt than in final sense-groups. Compound tunes are frequent. They are mostly Fall-|-Fall. In solemn speeches Level Tones combined with the High Level Scale are often used to convey the attitude of the speaker.

Pitch. In reading descriptive and scientific prose and in newspaper material it is mid. It is rather wide in public speeches — narrow in reading poetry. It fluctuates in reading tales. It is wider in reading drama, than in reading the descriptive and scientific prose.

Stress. It is mostly decentralized in monologues and narrative parts, centralized in dialogues and emphatic parts.

Rhythmic organization. In reading tales it depends greatly on the syntactical and compositional structure. In public speeches it is based on the rhythmic organization of rhythmic groups and sense-groups.

Tempo. The tempo is moderate, mostly constant in reading des­criptive and scientific prose and in newspapers, it is quicker in paren­thetic and absolute constructions. It is changeable and moderate in drama. It is constant and slow in poetry. The tempo of public speeches depends on the size of the audience and the topic. The climax of a speech is characterized by a change in tempo, range and loudness.

Pauses. They are mostly logical, In poetry the line usually ends in a pause (if there is no enjambement). In reading drama pausation de­pends on the structure and rhythmic organization. In public speeches pauses not only divide the utterance into sense-groups, but make cer-

tain units prominent. There are hesitation pauses..Long pauses often anticipate the main information and isochronous units — lines. It is the main lexico-grammatical and intonational unit of poetry. Lines constitute a stanza. Poetry is characterized by the following into­national peculiarities: 1. A wide use of simple tones. The Level Tone is often combined with the High Level Scale. 2. The most typical tones are: Fall Fall, Fall Level, Rise Fall.


1. How is intonation defined? 2. What are the main approaches to the study of intonation? 3. Speak on: a) the melody or the pitch compo­nent of intonation; b) sentence stress; c) rhythm and tempo; d) pausa-tion and tamber. 4. Speak on the stylistic use of intonation.


1. Read these words with the six main tones: (1) low fall, (2) low rise, (3) high
fall, (4) high rise, (5) fall-rise, (6) rise-fall.

Model: vdeed, ,deed, ‘deed, ‘deed, vdeedsAdeed feed, cord, window, something, matter, quarter

2. Read these words and word combinations (a) with the undivided falling-
rising tone, (b) with the divided falling-rising tone.

(a) cousin, husband, country, London, midday, blackboard, quin­
sy, bedroom, bathroom, modern, cottage;

(b) sit down, good morning, good day, go on, come up, what’s up

3. Read these words and word combinations (a) with the undivided rising-
falling tone, (b) with the divided rising-falling tone.

(a) please, read, begin, listen, bad, thank, well, what, right, come,
foreign, wrong, dear;

(b) put down, write down, clean the board, not large, behind Tom,
long ago, poor thing

4. Read these sentences. Observe (a) the low falling tone and (b) the high fall­
ing tone.

(a) She is ,cold. (b) She is ‘cold.

She is at the .hospital. She is at the ‘hospital.

‘Father is at vhome. ‘Father is at ‘home.

‘Don’t go a^lone. ‘Don’t go a’lone.

‘Don’t I take the Jamp. ‘Don’t ‘take the ‘lamp.

He is inot 4well. He is ‘not ‘well.

‘Why are you 4Iate? ‘Why are you ‘late?

‘Betty is in vbed. ‘Betty is in ‘bed.

‘Mother is vbusy. Mother is ‘busy.

5. Read these sentences. Observe the tone marks.

1. I When are you .coming? 2. You can ‘have it. to,morrov. 3. I When did you ‘last ‘see your , parents? 4. She ‘never ‘really

Üooks very vwelL б, lMy books are jfairly ,new. 6, It’s ‘easier to ispeak than to (understand. 7. ‘What did you -say? 8. You might have v warned me. 9. ,How long do you *want to ‘keep it? 10. She ‘won’t Ido it any ‘better than ,you. 11. Would you Hike a’nother I lump of ‘sugar? 12. You ican’t go to the Iparty idressed like vthat, 13. Will you Iwait till I’ve lhad itime to ‘look for it. 14. It’s ‘always the ,same.

6. Read the following communicative types with the appropriate attitudes: (a) categoric statements (cool, reserved, indifferent, grim attitude)

low fall

II. Accommodation, reduction, elision 1. I ‘want to vtalk to you. 2. I What kcountry are you from? 3. I Ican’t ispeak Spanish. 4, I was Jbusy that day. 5. You iknew he .was there.

(b) disjunctive questions (statement of a fact provoking the listener’s reaction) They 4know about it, ,don’t they?

1. He ‘read this book, ,didn’t he? 2. She (worked xhard at her English, ,didn’t she? 3, They are in the Vater, ,aren’t they? 4. iTom is already 4en, ,isn’t he? 5. Your isister (wants to Istudy ‘German, .doesn’t she? 6. I can ‘do something, ,can’t I? 7. It’s (five o’clock, .isn’t it?

They Nknow about it, ^don’t they?

(You are sure that the listener agrees with what you say.) Read the same questions with the above shown sequence, (c) commands (firm and serious attitude)

iShow me your xticket.

1. iTurn ion the flight, 2. ‘Wash and ‘iron your 4dress. 3, ‘Leave the idoor .open. 4. iDon’t (go to the .concert. 5. lHang up the ^time-table. 6. Reipair the .tape recorder. 7. ‘Finish this 4worlc 8, ‘Sew the ibutton on to your ^coat.

(d) exclamations (weighty and emphatic)

iHow ridiculous!

1. I’m fso ,happy! 2. The iweather is Jovelyi 3. It’s tall .over now! 4. iStop iteasing your vsisterl 5. How Iquick the (young (people

»are! 6. ‘What a itidy »room! 7. ‘Lovely »weather! 8, I Wonderful ‘language laboratory! 9. iSuch Iselfish lyoung »men!

(e) special questions (serious, intense, responsible)

What’s the »time?

II. Accommodation, reduction, elision 1. I When did you Icome vhome? 2. ‘What do you ,do? 3. What did you Mo in the „evening? 4. iHow did you ‘spend the ‘time »yesterday? 5. Who is igoing to !do the »shopping?

Pronounce the saroe questions with the low rising tone to show interest.

What’s all this ,fuss about?

Pronounce the same questions with the rising nuclear tone, following the in­terrogative word to show disapproval.

,When did you *come there?

Pronounce the same questions with the high falling nuclear tone to show business-like interest.

What’s the ‘time?

Pronounce the same questions with the high rising nuclear tone to ask for a repetition.

‘What’s the ‘time?

Pronounce the same questions with the falling-rising nuclear tone to plead for sympathy. Make the questions warm, affectionate, weary.

II. Accommodation, reduction, elision What’s the ,time? -v

II. Accommodation, reduction, elision Pronounce the same questions with the rising-falling tone to make it challeng­ing, antagonistic.

«‘What’s the ,time?

(f) alternative questions (the final fall shows that the list is complete)

1. Would you like ,bread or vmeat? 2. Would you like ,fish or 4meai? 3. ‘Would you like ,fish or 4eggs? 4. ‘Would you like potatoes or to^matoes? 5. «Would you like carrots or 4cabbage? 6. (Would you like ,cucumbers or tbeets? 7. Would you like ,cof-fee or ^cocoa?

(g) statements containing an implication. What is implied is clear from the situation, it may be: suggestion, concern, polite correction, reluctance, careful dissent, grateful admittance.

II. Accommodation, reduction, elision am ‘not ,late.


II. Accommodation, reduction, elision 1. «I vhope I am ‘not ,late.x 2. ~You are ‘not .right. 3. «1 ‘work systematically. 4. ~ I have no 1time for ,lunch today. 5. «I ‘should have ,done it. 6. «I Van’t answer this question. 7. You ‘can sing ,perfectly.

(n) requests (pleadingly, reproachfully, reassuringly)

II. Accommodation, reduction, elision J

II. Accommodation, reduction, elision 1. ‘Cheer ,up. 2. ‘Do for,give me. 3. ‘Don’t ,do it. 4. 4Come in. 5. ‘Don’t |do it a,lonel 6. ‘Will you in,vite me? 7. ‘Go ,on.

7. Read these sentences. Make the auxiliary and modal verbs that begin sen­
tences stressed to show greater interest.

1. iDoes it ,matter? Does it ,matter? 2. lls he going to ,come? Is he Igoing to ,come? 3. iDo you like ,oranges? Do you ‘like , oranges? 4. I Can you have an [afternoon ,off? Can you have an lafterinoon ,off? 5. iCould they ,help it? Could they ,help it?

8. Read these sentences. Make the possessive pronouns that are used as predic­
atives stressed.

1. IThis (thing was .mine. 2. IThis I thing was Jhis. 3. ‘This ithing was vyours. 4. IThis ‘thing was sours. 5. IThis ‘thing was ^theirs.

9. Read these sentences. Make the final prepositions strong.

1. iNothing to be afraid of. 2. Whom are you t talking to? 3. iWhat do you 4want it for? 4. It was iMary he was ^looking for. 5. It was ‘Bess he was vthere with. 6. iWhere did she tcome from? 7. What is she 4here for? 8. It’s a ithing unheard of. 9. ‘This Iboy should be vsent for. 10. IThis ‘letter was «much talked about.

10. Read these sentences. Don’t stress the correlative conjunction «as , . . as»-

1. I’ll Icome as ‘soon as he ^pleases. 2. I’ll iread as Hong as the fchild Jikes. 3. It’s tnot as ‘simple as vthat. 4. (Jane was as

II. Accommodation, reduction, elision

/-/ — the high prehead

(pale as ä vghost. 5. lUria was as ‘slippery as an »eel.’6. iDid’you •say: «As I snug as a I bug in a jug?»

11. Read these sentences. Don’t stress (or make weakly stressed) combinations: «or so», «or something», «each other», «one another». Don’t stress the sub­stitute word «one».

1. He will ‘come in an vhour or so. 2. This ifruit will be Ired in a 4month or so. 3. We’ll ibuy a ,coat or something to project you from the 4cold. 4. He ‘said «»»Good xmorning» or something, and (Went |onwith his 4work. 5-. He’ ‘really ‘wanted a ‘couple of »books or so. 6. He was a ^bootmaker and a vgood one. 7. We have ‘never ^quarrelled with each other. 8. The Ipassengers ‘seemed to Jike one another.

Я2. Read these rhymes. Observe the regular alternation of stressed and un­stressed syllables according to the given stress tone marks.

Uack and (Jillwent fup the ,hill. To I fetch a ipailof »water. •Jack fell ,down and I broke his ,crown, And ‘Jill came ‘tumbling vafter.

‘Twinkle, itwinkle, ‘little ,star, ‘How I ‘wonder iwhat you 4are. I Up albove the I world so ,high ‘Like a’diamond Jin the vsky.

* * *

In ‘winter ‘I get lup at xnight And I dress by I yellow ‘candle | light. In ‘summer jquite the ‘other vway I _^bave to Jgo to J>bed by %day.г

Control Tasks

1. Transcribe and intone the sentences below. Pay attention to the differen-tiatory function of stress in the italicized words.

1. a) He spoke with no trace of accent, b) The way you accent these words tells me you were not born in England. 2. a) That’s very ab-

II. Accommodation, reduction, elision


what I call a silver’tip? thVtax’i-dr’iver»said contentedly, b’) This is obviously a silver tip; no other metal would have been strong enough for the job. 5. a) You will need a permit in order to visit that place, b) The job has to be done very quickly; it does not permit of any delay.

II. Accommodation, reduction, elision1 The mark Ijl indicates a stressed accented syllable In the scandent scale.

fi—182 209

6. a) We entered a very dark room, b) A darkroom is a room for photo­graphic processing. 7. a) Who is going to refund our losses? b) The re­fund did not amount to too much but it was extremely welcome. 8.

a) This is all the spending money you’ll get from me for this month.

b) Spending money is easy, making it may prove more of a problem.

2. Read this text äs a radio commentator: I).Add extra loudness to your voice.
2) Watch the tempo of speech. 3) Articulate clearly and distinctly.

A World Without Wars, Without Weapons is the Ideal of Socialism

The international policy of the CPSU proceeds from the humane nature of socialist society, which is free from exploitation and oppres­sion and has no classes or social groups with an interest in unleashing war. It is inseparably linked with the basic, strategic tasks of the Party within -the country and expresses the common aspiration of the Soviet people to engage In constructive work and to live in peace with all the peoples.

The main goals and directions of the international policy of the CPSU:

— Provision of auspicious external conditions for refinement of
socialist society and for advance to communism in the USSR; removal
of the threat of world war and achievement of universal security and

— Constant development and expansion of cooperation between
the USSR and the fraternal socialist countries and all-round promotion
of consolidation and progress in the world socialist system;

— Development of relations of equality and friendship with
newly-free countries;

— Maintenance and development of relations between the USSR
and capitalist states on a basis of peaceful coexistence and business­
like mutually beneficial cooperation;

— Internationalist solidarity with Communist and revolutiona­
ry-democratic parties, with the international working class movement
and with the national liberation struggle of the peoples.

(From the draft new edition of the CPSU Programme)

3. Read this text as a dictation: observe correct rhythmic groups andsenten

Cutting off with a Shilling

Sheridan, the famous English playwright, wanted his son Tom to rry a young woman of a large fortune. The youth was in love with

a penniless girl and refused pointblank to obey his father.

Out of patience with his son, Sheridan threatened him: «If you don’t

immediately obey me, 1 shall cut you off with a shilling.» «When you

really make up your mind’ to cut me off with a shilling,» said the youth, «you will have to borrow it first, sir,»

Sheridan burst out laughing and dropped the subject altogether.


Asking Too Much

An Englishman was driving along a country road in Ireland and met a man carrying a heavy bag.

«Can I take you into town?» the Englishman asked.

The Irishman said, «Thank you,» and got into the car.

In a few minutes the driver saw that the Irishman was sitting with the heavy bag still in his hand.

«Why don’t you put your bag down?» he asked.

«Well,» answered the Irishman, «you’ve given me a ride in your car. I can’t ask you to carry my bag as well.»

# * *

«You say that I am the first model you ever kissed?»


«And how many models have you had before me?»

«Four. An apple, two oranges, and a vase of flowers.»

* * *

Soph: But I don’t think I deserve ari»absolute zero.

Prof; Neither do I, but it is the lowest mark that I am allowed to give.

* * *

A young writer sent a number of manuscripts to a celebrated news­paper columnist, asking his advice as to the best channel for mar­keting the writings. The manuscripts came back with’this curt note: ■»The one channel I can conscientiously recommend as the greatest outlet for articles of this type is the English Channel,»

5. Read these texts as if you were readinglthem to a) children; b) students. Learn the poem by heart.

a) The Rooster

by Hilda I. Rostron

What would we do, I’d like to know, Without that bird That loves to crow?

Who wakes him up, I’d like to know, To tell him when It’s time to crow.

8* аи

I’ll get up early One day, too, And shout out: «Cock-a-doodle-doo-oo.»

b) Still not Perfect

A small schoolboy often wrote: «I have went,» instead of «I have gone». At last his teacher said:

«You must stay after school this afternoon and write ‘I have gone’ a hundred times.. Then you will remember it.»

When the teacher came back he found a letter from the_boy on his desk. It said: ■

Dear Sir,

I have wrote «I have gone» a hundred times, and now I have went.


The English language is spoken in Great Britain, the United States of America, Australia, New Zealand and the greater part of Cana­da. It is native to many who live in India, Israel, Malta and Ceylon

All the national varieties of the English language have very much 4n common but they differ from standard pronunciation. Standard pronunciation is the pronunciation .governed by the orthoepic norm. It is the pronunciation of the educated circles. It is used by radio and television, and is regionally neutral.

In the British Isles the regional types of the English language are: (1) the Southern English, (2) the Northern English and (3) the Stand­ard Scottish.

In the United States of America the regional types of the American
variant of the English language are: (1) the Eastern type, (2) the South­
ern type, (3) the General American type (Northern, Midwestern,
Western). ‘

The social standard within Britain is the so-called Received Pro nunciationor RP. It is the teaching norm at schools and higher learn­ing establishments of the Soviet Union because of (1) the degree of understandability in English-speaking countries, (2) the extent of RP investigation, (3) the number of textbooks and audio-visual aids’.

In the United States of America the most wide-spread type is General American. Like RP in Great Britain GA in America is the social standard: it is regionally neutral, it is used by radio and TV, in scientific and business discourse, it is spoken by educated Americans’.

Since RP and GA are the most widely accepted types of pronuncia­tion the learners of English should know the principal differences between them.


The total number of RP and GA consonants differ in one phoneme, it is the GA /W. The rest of the RP and GA inventory of consonant phonemes coincides.

The main peculiarities in the pronunciation of GA consonants concern the following phonemes.


This sound is one of the most characteristic of GA pronunciation. In its articulation the tip and blade of the tongue are turned upward, toward the hard palate, the tip pointing to the area immediately be­hind the alveolar ridge (it does not touch it) — a retroflex position. Its pronunciation is accompanied by some slight protrusion of the lips.

The sides of the tongue are in contact with the bicuspid and molar teeth, as for /n/ or /d/. /r/ is more sonorous in GA than in


RP. When preceded by /t, d, 9, J7, /r/ is pronounced with an audible friction.

GA /r/ is pronounced not only initially but also before a con­sonant and in the word final position, e. g. /farm, berd. sistsV.

American scientists consider that /я, зг/ and /э, з7 are tense and lax allophones of /r/ phoneme in /faöar/, /тзгтэту, /fia7-


There are two allophones of /1/ phoneme in GA: dark and light, but most of the GA speakers use the dark III in all positions: initially, .medially and finally.

Clear or light allophone of IM is commonly used in the South Atlan­tic regions of the USA.

The dark/1/is pronounced when the major portion of the tongue is raised to the velar part of the mouth cavity.


This phoneme is highly variable in AE.

(1) A voiced variety of /t/ is used in a) intervocalic position before
an unstressed vowel as in butter, Ы him in, Ы another; h) preceding a
syllabic /1/ as in beetle, subtle; c) between a nonsyllabic /1/ and an un­
stressed vowel as in malted, altogether, salted; d) between /n/ and an
unstressed vowel as in twenty, wanted, seventy, want to see; e) between
unaccented vowels as in at another place, if it is convenient.

/t/ is not voiced initially or terminally, or when it precedes syl­labic /n/ as in button.

(2) An unconsciously inserted /t/, or /d/ («excrescent» /t, d/) is
recognized to be standard in such words as dense, mince, prince, which
become homonyms of dents, mints, prints.

(3) In careless or indistinct speech /t/ and /d/ may be lost a) as in
eighth, width, breadth, lists, posts; b) after /n/ and before an unstressed
vowel as in want to, twenty, find another, centre, wonderful, blinding,
storm, land of plenty.

(4) /1/ is dropped and a glottal plosive is inserted, when it is
immediately preceding a syllabic /n/ or /I/ as in kitten /ki?n/,
mitten /mi?n/, bottle /bü?l/, settle /se?l/.

The Glottal Stop /?/

f i It results from the compression^and sudden release of air at the glottis. It is produced when the compressed air is pushed through the separating vocal bands. This sound is known as laryngeal stop, it is voiceless and unaspirated. It is used by GA speakers before initially stressed vowels (sometimes between vowels) when the second vowel begins a stressed syllable, and as a transition sound from a final to an initial vowel as in triumphant, a^orta, Indiafoffice, ?/ did.1

II. Accommodation, reduction, elision1Used frequently, it interrupts phrasing and distorts the rhythm of speech, г or. these reasons, it is usually counseled against.

/м/ and/hw/

Either of these symbols represent the pronunciation of words spelt with the initial wh as in where, when, etc, [hwl is an aspirated on-glide to the /w/ sound. /W is a voiceless, fricative, labiovelar or a voiceless /w/. Either of them is the norm, but /hw/ is the predominant lorau


The glottal, fricative or whispered GA /h/ is similar to the RP /h/. However the GA /h/ is frequently voiced in intervocalic position as in perhaps [f[]. /h/ is lost when used initially in unstressed or weak forms within a phrase, as in:

has — Where has he gone? have — I have gone to the store, had — He had twenty of them, his — I saw his car. he — Did you see how he ran?

/h/ has an independent phonetic value used initially before stressed syllables as in:

he — He gave John the bag.

whose — Whose book is this?

whole — The whole group came.

/h/ is omitted in a stressed word in: Come herel


f‘/w> h r/ are called, «glides» because the initial area of their formation is closely, associated with a Vowel: /w/ begins at or near [v, ul; /r/—near fcr, ar]; /j/^-at or near [i, i position, the glides appear only prevocally.

/j/ is the Hngua-palatal glide which in GA has^severalj modifi­cations:

(1) The [ju] variants are pronounced in words like tune, duty,
when u, iew eau are preceded by /p, b, f, v, m, k, h/ as in pure,
beauty, few, view, music, cupid, human.

(2) A slightly fronted [u] may be heard in all other instances
as in tune, new, duty, suit, enthuse.

(3) After fa J1, tj d3/ or a consonant /l/> [u], fronted [uj or
[iu] are used by GA speakers as in rumor, shoe, chew, June, flew,

(4) In huge, human type of words /h j/ combination is pro­
nounced as the German «ich laut» [9]. The words huge, human,
humane, humor, humorist, humoristic
and humorous can be pro­
nounced with the initial (hju) or [ju].

(6) Itj], [djl [uj are assimilated in GA into ‘[tf] and [dg] as in tune [tfunl, due [dsub education dkjj

II. Accommodation, reduction, elision1 The /hw/ is usual in Scotland, Ireland and in the North of England, is more usual in Southern^England.



This sound is vocalized in final unstressed syllables ending in -ion, -ia.as in version !W$n/, Asia /eiga/. /J7 is not vocalized in depressipn, aspersion.

Nasals /m, n, g/

A common characteristic of GA is the so-called «American twang», which is the nasalizing of a vowel before a nasal conso­nant which results from the lowering of the soft palate,_while the vowel is being spoken as in candy [.kädi], manner [тагпэг], man

[msen], fine [famj.

In, m/ may be omitted followed by /f, v/ as in some vines

[sAvamz], come further [kÄf3röar], one fine day [ш. fai dei].

Sometimes syllabic (g] is substituted for }$] or [эп1 as in taken

[teikg], sicken [sikn], chicken [tjikn].

GA speakers may pronounce [beikn] for bacon, [ai kg gau] for / can go, [baeg g bsegidg] for bag and baggage, [brsukn glaes] for broken, glass, [азаекд keit] for Jack and Kaie.

«English Pronouncing Dictionary» by D. Jones notes that in the words listed below Americans use /n/, while RP speakers use both /n/ and /n/:

conclude conglomeration
enclose encompass
encrust engraft
engulf enquire
incapacitate incline
inclement ingratitude
inglorious synchron ic









Principal Peculiarities of^GA Consonants

1. Voiceless, fricative, labiovelar /м/.

2. The GA /r/ is more sonorous than the RPJ/r/. It is retroflex

3. /1/—predominantly dark.

4. /t/—short, voiced, intermediate between /d/ and /t/ and a
one tap /r/. /t/ may be omitted in twenty, plenty. It may change
into a glottal stop: that one, or turn into silence; twenty.

5. Glottal stop /?/.

6. /h/—voiced in intervocalic position; lost initially in un­
stressed or weak forms within a phrase.

7. /ju/ may change into a) fronted [a] in tune, duty, b)
/as/ in due, tune, c) «ich laut» in huge, human.

8. Я/—vocalized in version, Asia.

9. «Nasal twang» as in man.



‘ The articulatory and distributional differences between GA and RP are the following.

Front Vowels


This phoneme does not differ greatly in GA and RP. It is diphthongized in the final position in GA- and RP, as in see /sii/, Diphthongization is less noticeable before voiceless stops as in beat /bit/, meat /rait/.


This phoneme is a little more open in GA than in RP. In GA it is ■■often obscured, when followed or preceded by Ix. h v/ orM as^in will, fill, river, bear,


It is lower than the RP /e/ and resembles /ге/. GÄ /б/ may»be diphthongized before /pt t, k/, e. g. get /gs’t/, bet /biat/.

— /*/

In j3A /e/ is long, tense and nasalized before /d, m, n/, e,g> 5^ДвеМ/, answer/iffi:ns3/. The GA W differs from the RP /as/ distnbulionally: (l)it is used in words in which the letter a is foltpwed by a consonant other than r, as in answer /i«ns>/, каЩШ1 aurU /ant/; (3) ‘in GA /e/ is used instead of /a/ in Ще words like, cc/T£i /iken/, marry /imen/, parrot /iperat/.

:‘ ^ TheКгопцад1вШп of American,.’Engt)*.,

Central Vowels


It is stressed, unrounded, mid-open, produced with the middle of the tongue slightly raised. The position of the tongue is close to low back /и, э/. When unstressed /л/ may be replaced by [э] or p], as in subscribe [sabiskraib], [stb.. .J-

Speakers of New York City and some in Eastern New England use [4i3ri] instead of /1плп/. In colloquial speech [waz], [av], Цй-лт] can be used instead of [wdz], [t>v], [from].


/3/ and its variant [зг] are tense, stressed and usually long vowels. [зг] variant is the more common of the two. It results from a retroflexion of .the tongue-tip toward the hard palate, a greater retraction of the tongue or a combination of both, e.g. bird /bard/, fir №/.

[9r] is the sound of suns tressed syllabic /r/ in such words as father, doer, better. The r-coloured, lax, central vowel is heard throughout the JJSA, except in the r-less areas, such as the South, Eastern New England, New York City. [эг] and its variant [9] vary as do the /з/, /зг/.

[з, зг] are used to represent stressed er, ur, ear, or, as in fern, burn, learn, worst.

г, э] * are used to represent unstressed er, or, oar, ax, ir, ur, lire» yr, re, as in better, actor, cupboard, wizard, tapir, pressure, hmrmur, satyr, sceptre.


The unstressed, central, lax vowel that can occur in any position of a word. It is the most commonly used vowel because of the exten­sive use’of uastressed syllables, /э/ is used in definite and indefinite articles, monosyllabic prepositions, conjunctions, pronouns and auxil­iary and modal verbs, as in a, an, the, but, or, for, from, of, her, them, shall, was, can.


High, central, unrounded. The lips are in the neutral position. The central part of the tongue is high, the bulk of the tongue retract­ed] from .thecposition for [i], [1], It is known as the «barred V and used in .the words like sister, thing, fist, fish, chips. This sound is rarely heard in GA, but in colloquial speech it is found in all dialects of Amer­ican English. It is used in both syllables of the word children. It varies withVi/ in the words’me, ‘see. The unstressed hi is common in words like parted, horses, in the words can and just in the phrases:

II. Accommodation, reduction, elision ,*te,,я’], [эг, з] are considered to be allophones of the hi phoneme, see •Br<ms№itb*A’. J, The Pronunciation of American English.— Prentice Hall,’ 1960 (^central vowels»).

/ can do it, Just a moment /km/, /eiset/. Many American scientists are convinced that the three high vowels /i, i, u/ «are as phonemically distinct from each other as the three mid vowels /s, л, о/.»

Emphasized w, Ate, trift, »fe, i/, ftfe are pronounced with pj. Most people do not hear this sound because it has*no special form which can be associated with it.


The GA /a/ is more front than the [RP /a/. It is central, or mixed and low, broad variation. In contrast to the RP N the GA /a/ has a different distribution. It is used a) in words like hop, rob, not, lock; dolt, solve, on; b) in words before velar /rj/, /g/ both /a/ and /o/ can be used as in log /lag/—/log/, frog /frag/—/frog/, etc.

Back Vowels


It is a back, low, lax vowel. It is used as a variant of N in hot, stop, and of /d/ in rfog^, cough. For those who distinguish between (bam, bum, fn>0, frod, hug, hok[ /«/ is а separate^pho­neme, different from /a/ or /o/ in ca/m, Ыт, law, fall.


The GA /o/ is intermediate in quality between theJRP /o;/ and /«/■ In the production of the GA /a/ the lips are considerably less rounded than in artjculating^/o:/. This sound is commonly spelled with an a or o. Other spellings are ail, aw, al, oa, ou, as in a», border, fault, fawn, halt, broad, brought*


It is a high, back, tense vowel. The lips are rounded and may> be slightly protruded, as in boot. It is diphthongal in character, especially when stressed and lengthened — [uu]. Slightly fronted [м] may be heard in tune, new, duty, suit. The forms with [ju]t f» are also possible.


It is a slightly lower and fronted sound when compared with /u/. The lip rounding is less than for /u/. It is spelled oo, u, o, ou, as in book, full, wolf, could. The GA /u/ sounds like RP /«/• As a variant it can occur finally in the word into.

GA Diphthongs

Soviet phoneticians distinguish five diphthongs in GA: /ei, ai, oi, au, ou/.1

II. Accommodation, reduction, elision * Shakhbagova D, A. Varieties of English Pronunciation,—M., 1982.-» P. 27.


■ It differs from the RP /ei/ in diphthongization. It mostly occurs in word final position, or before voiced consonants, as in holiday /’hahdei/, game /geim/, grade /greid/. A monophthongal variant of /ei/ may occur before voiceless consonants as in gate /get/, date /det/. It may be reduced to /e/ in unstressed syllables, as in va­cation /veikei£n/, chaotic /keiatik/. In American books on phonetics and in dictionaries it is transcribed as /e/.

/ai/, /3i/

These diphthongs are practically identical in RP and GA.

In GA the nucleus of the diphthong is aback mid-open vowel, in RP it starts from the tongue position for the RP /a:/. It is, therefore, transcribed by some British phoneticians as /эй/. In GA the glide of the diphthong may be reduced to /o/ before voiceless Consonants and in unstressed syllables, as in boat /bot/, radio /’reidio/. It is transcribed as /of by American phoneticians.


This diphthong may be realized as /au/ and /аи/, the first va­riant usually predominates. In RP the starting point is the posi­tion of the tongue for /a/.

/at/, /о:/, /ю/, /еэ/, /ээ/, /иэ/

In GA these monophthongs and centring diphthongs are pro­nounced respectively as: /ar/, /or/, jit/, /er/,/ur/.

Principal Peculiarities of GA Vowels

1. No opposition between historically long and historically short.

2. /i/ may be obscured as in fill, river.

3. /e/—lower than the RP /e/.

4. /ge/—long, mostly nasalized, may turn into /e/ as in marry,
/a/ may be used instead of /a/ as in ask, past, dance.

5. /3/—retroflex in medial and terminal position as in bird,

6. M—«barred» /i/ in sister, parted, horses, in emphasized in,
his, with.

7. /a/ instead of /d/ as in dolt, hop, rob.

8. /o/ instead of /э:/ as in law, quality.

9. In GA the distinction between monophthongs and diphthongs
is not very consistent.

10. Within the orthoepic system the pronunciation of words in
GA is close to the reading rules and is therefore different from that of



The major differences in the accentual structure between RP and GA are mainly with the use of the tertiary stress (the primary stress isjonic, the secondary stress is pre-tonic, the tertiary stress is post-tonic, unstressed syllables are weak).

The tertiary, or post-tonic stress in GA falls on the suffixes -ary, -ery, -oryf -mony, -arily, -ative, -on, e. g.


‘dictionary /en/ ‘dictionary /эп/

I territory /эп/ ‘territory /эп/

I monastery /en/ ‘monastery /эп/

1 testijmony /mouni/ testimony /тэт/

‘ordinarily /enh/ ‘ordinarily /arili/

ad’minisjtrative /eitiv/ administrative

The suffix -ile is an exception, e. g. GA agik /il/, /э1/, Л/, RP agile /ail/.

Other differences between British and American word-stress com­prise a) two, b) three, c) four, d) five syllable words:


a) Mbrate viibrate

b) confiscate (confiscate

c) primarily ‘primarily

d) ‘custoimarily ‘customarily

In five syllable words the American secondary stress may fall earli­er than the British:


igesticu’lation gesticulation

There are exceptions:


a’ristojcratic (aristocratic

The major differences in the accentual types of compound words in GA and RP are the following:

i) In RP compounds with two primary stresses are more common than in GA:


New I York iNew ‘York1

II. Accommodation, reduction, elision1 Exceptions are RP: rainproof, Westminster, midsummer.

2) Tertiary stress differences comprise compound place names end­ing in -borough, -burgh, -bury, -ehester, -gate, -ham, -moor, -shire4 -stead, -heath, -land, -mouth, -wood, -worth, e.g.


iBirraing|ham ‘Birmingham

Tertiary stress^differences also comprise words with the second component -berry,»**-body, -land, -penny, e.g.


lanyibody ‘anybody ‘Sunday ‘Sunday


American English intonation differs from British English intona­tion mainly in tmemphatJc, or emotionally neutral speech. Pretenni-nal pitch contour in RP is gradually descending stepping, in GA it is mid-level or mid-wavy-level. The unstressed syllables in GA fall’ to a lower pitch, inRP unstressed syllables gradually descend. Ameri­can English intonation produces an impression of level or monotonous melody. The GA and RP differences in the direction of the voice pitch may lead to functional or attitudinal differences. For example, «low head» in RP conveys detached, reserved, dispassionate, unsympathet­ic, unemotional, sometimes cold or dull attitude oti the part of the speaker. In GA sentences like: Go out, Sit down, etc. pronounced with a low head and lowfall would sound quite normal. — The GA general questions take a falling tone, in RP they are pronounced with the rising tone. The rising tone’in’GA general ques­tions is used to show politeness, e. g.

usual form Ars you | Veady? polite form

The monotony of GA intonation is explained by the following fac­tors: 1) pitch characteristics, 2) narrow range of the utterance, 3) slow tempo, 4) more complicated than RP rhythmical structure of intona­tion (RP unstressed vowels are characterized by qualitative reduction,, in GA sounds in unstressed syllables are lengthened).

The differences between GA and RP sound, accentual structure-■and intonation do not affect the main language structures, therefore-GA is only a variety of the English language and cannot be considered. «American language» as some of the American linguists claim,

Given below are the diagrams in which vowel phonemes in Cana­dian English, General American and RP are summarized.1

The norms of GA and RP pronunciation are^highly variable. The-Variability of standard pronunciation should be taken into consider­ation when teaching spoken language.

1 For details see: Shakhbagova D. A. Op. eit. 222

Table 10


CE GA RP Examples
i i к Seat
e, e e e, e set
  ж & sat
i i i sit
зг 3r a: bird, Hurry
эг, a Э э centre, data
a a и dot
a, & (ar)ae а: dance
э э: sort, shawl
Ц и   boot
л л л but
V и и book
ei er ei bake
SI ai ai bike
ли au au now
ou ou ou go
  DI boy
(ir) (ir)1 here
(er) (6Г)еэ there
(or) (ar) ээ more
(иг) (or) иэ sure

1 I»j. lea], [09], Eu»] correspond to the QA дпи СЕ (»), [srj. [srj,

There are three main types distinguished within RP pronuncia­tion; 1) conservative — used by older generation, by certain profes­sions or social groups, 2) the general RP used by the BBC, and 3) the advanced RP, used by young people, or in some circles for prestige purposes.

The main differences between standard and advanced RP are the following:

1) The closing diphthongs are pronounced with the weakened or
lost glide, e. g.

/tel/ instead of /teil/

/ou/ turns into /a:/, e. g. /Ьз:п/ instead of /boim/ /ai/ turns into /a3/ or /a/, e. g. /ba3d/, /bad/ instead of /baid/ /аи/ turns into /aa/, or /a/, e. g. /taa/, or /t<t/ instead of Даиз/ /oi/ turns into /o:/, e. g. /bo:/ instead of /boi/ {tall, call are exceptions)

2) The centring diphthongs are levelled with monophthongs:

/ia/, /бэ/ turn into /e:/ or long /ж/, е- g. bared, fared, pared are pronounced as /bs:d/, /fs:d/, /pe:d/

/is/ is opposed to /еэ/ in open syllables, e. g. hear—hair, fearfair. This opposition does not occur before voiceless, or before /1/.

/л/ turns into /a/, e. g. /san/ instead oi /sAn/

3) The glottal stop is used between words and syllables, e. g»
/ni?jehti/, /6i >?a:nt/, /Oet’?eib1/—that table.

4) /r/ is pronounced like the GA retroflex /r/.


1. What is standard pronunciation? 2. What are the main differ­ences between the RP and GA a) systems of consonants; b) system^ of vowels; c) accentual structure and intonation? 3, What is «advanced» RP?


1. Read the words below according to the GA standard.

• farm, bird, sister, leave, let, late, berry, merry, very, Bett у, .bottle* little, city, certainly, that one, mountain, which, what, when, due,1 new, suit, excursion, version, Persia, man, name, noun, nationa^

2. Read the words below

(a) with the vowel /i/ obscured:

will, fill, building, river, spirit, miracle, beer

(b) with the vowel lei lower than the RP /e/:
bell, well, best, lest, nest, hell

jc) with the vowel /el diphthongized /W, /a»/:

bet, get,-detr met,.neck,-check,iet;Ш

3. Read the words below

(a) with the OA Ы more frönt arid longer than the RP /je/:

ask, dance, last, answer,’ half, aunt

(b) with the RP /se/ nasalized before I A, m, n/:
bad, man, land, answer

4. Read the words below according to the GA standard.

hurry PWij, current /*кзтэп1:/, courage /^idg/, worry /lW3ri/„ furrow /'{эгэи/, squirrel />skw3r3l/, stirrup /Ыэгэр/, clerk /кЬЧ?/г derby /Wbi/

5. Read the words below with the /r/-colouring terminally.

winter, perceiver, doctor, mister, sister, Webster

6. Read the words below according to the GA standard-
not, crop, dock, nod, father, palm, balm, calm

7. Read the words below according to the GA standard,

hop, rob, not, lock; doll, solve, on; frog, log, long; law, court

8- Read the words below. Compare the pronunciation of theJRP and GA diph­thongs, of the Jong monophthongs /?:, a/.

gate, date, late, Kate, mate, make; radio, goat, coat; far, formr fare, bare, poor, mare, near, door

9, Read the words below. Mind the tertiary stress differences in RP and OAl


‘dictionary idictiojnary

iFerbuary >FebrU|ary

‘ordinary ‘ordinary

‘category icateigory

•territory lterri|tcry

‘cemetery ‘cemetery

‘monastery ‘monastery

‘matrimony ‘matrimony

‘testimony ‘testimony

‘necessarily ‘necessarily

‘ordinarily ‘ordinarily

10. Read the words below. Mind the place of primary stress on thejsecond com­
ponent in RP and on the first component in GA compounds.


‘apple’source ‘appleisource

‘beefsteak ‘beefsteak

‘elseiwhere ‘elsewhere

ifarraJhouse ‘farmihouse

‘mean’time ‘meanitime

White ‘House «White iHouse

J-midf<Jay ‘working ‘man

‘mid|day ‘working

11. Read the place names below. Mind a single primary stress in RP and a primary and a tertiary stress in GA.



* Birmingham


iDartjinoor ‘Moor | gate •Newfoundland ‘Peterborough iDhi



) Moorgate




<Ex(mouth iHampistead ‘High|gate ^ll

‘Ex moor






12. Read the GA general questions with a Jailing tone (the counterpart tone
In RP would be rising).

Are you going? Does he care?

13. Read the GA casual requests with the falling tone (this intonation in RP
would suggest a command).

Come in, Sit down. Shut the door. Ojjen the book.


Exercises p. 14

1. witches /witj, -iz/, glasses /glas, -iz/, foxes /ftjks, -iz/, gases /gaes, -iz/V
judges /dgAc^, -iz/, crashes /kraj», -iz/, calves /kaf, -vz/, elves /elf, -vz/, halves
/haf, -vz/, knives /naif, -vs/, leaves /Itf, -vz/, lives /laif, -vz/, loafs /lauf, -vz/,
selves /self, -vz/, sheaves /Jif, -vz/, thieves /6l:f, -vz/, wives /waif, -vz/, wolves
/wulf, -vz/, actresses /Isektns, -iz/, hostesses /Ihaustis, -iz/, mistresses /Imistns, -iz/,
■sculptresses /IskAlptns, -iz/, waitresses /Iweitns, -iz/, lionesses /Harems, -iz/

2. begged /begd/, lived /!ivd/, opened /laupand/, travelled /Itrsevld/, cancelled
/Usensald/, compelled /kamlpeld/, recognized /Irekagnaizd/, arrived /alraivd/,
rained /rerad/, informed /mlfoimd/, stopped /stupt/, wrapped /rsept/, helpedi
/helpt/, asked /a;skt/, discussed /dislkAst/, worked /werkt/, passed /past/, shipped
/Jtpt/, packed /psekt/, looked /lukt/, nodded /InDdid/, permitted /palmitid/,,
waited /Jweitid/, expected /ikslpektid/, invented /inlventid/, rested /Irestid/,.
.loaded /llsudid/, depended /dilpendid/

3. /Ineifcn—Insejanl/, /greiv—Ignsviti/, /pratvauk—pralvukstiv/, /zfcl—
Jzebs/, /sju(:)lprtai—sjulprenrasi/, /alkg.’ — alkArsns/, /adlvais—adlvaiz/, /jus —
jt*z/, /haus—hauz/, /ikslkjirs — ikslkjua/, /dilvais—dilvaiz/, /Il^s—bz/,/kiaus —

4. /Jredbrest/ малиновка; /Iblitbe]/колокольчик; /Ibbsfeun/медный купорос;-
/ibmlamz/ авиационные линии, идущие с севера на юг Америки; /lbto|bDtl/
василек; /Iblaekjait/ чернорубашечник, фашист; /Iblsekfeis/ (полигр.) жирный
шрифт; /lba:dzai/ первоцвет; /lbred3n(d)tbAte/ детский, юный, незрелый;
/Ibreikipromis/ не хозяин своему слову, ненадежный человек;/fheviweit/ боксер,
Сорец тяжелого веса; /Iredbuk/ красная книга; /tbluitsbkirj/ «синий чулок»;
/iblumauz/ сорт картофеля; /Iblmkaut/ учащийся в щколе для бедных; солдат;
матрос; /Iblitjbtinit/ крестьянин; шотландец; /Ibtekhaul/^ темница.^, карцер,

ауптвахта; /Iblaäkrnss/ реквием

5, /stil/ неподвижный, спокойный; /sti:l/ сталь; /pml/ лужа, /pul/ тянуть;
/,fip/ корабль; /j»Ifр/ овца; /sit/ сидеть, /sfct/ место; /til/ наполнять, /Ш/ чув­
ствовать; /liv/ жить, /liiv/ покидать; /il/ больной; /1:1/ угорь; /slip/ ошибка,
/slip/ сон; /sei/ продавать, /seil/ продажа; /Imudl/ модель, /Irraudi/ модальный;
/so:/ пила, /sau/ так, таким образом; /IpauhJV польский, /IpühJ/ лоск, глянец;
/дм/ охрана, стража, /gaid/ проводник, гид; /W8:6/ ценность, значение, /W3:s/
Худший, еще хуже; /tiu-9/ правда, /tiixs/ перемирие; /bAt/ за исключением,
кроме, /Ьа9/ ванна; /breD/ дыхание, /bredG/ ширина; /Idaian/ дневник, /Idean/
маслобойня; /sjuit/ удовлетворять, /swtt/ свита; /paltreul/ патруль, /ipetr(s)l/
венаин; /теэ/ мэр, /Imeid-sa/ майор; /raut/ бунт, волнение, /rust/ маршрут

8. Rhythm.

9. То give particular importance to the word think.

_, . i0; (a) Tne sounds /s, J/ are repeated to express the idea of sea movement. ThlshIIPehelPsto Practise their differentiation.

(b) The sounds /u, ae, i, л/ are repeated in the rhyme to practise thei* pronunciation and differentiation.

.11. /bau-wau, mJiE-mjur, grAnt-grAnt, skwi:k,;tuihu:, kau-kau, kwffik-kwffikrmu;/. Onomatopoeia.

Control Tasks p. 17 3

s/; riotroutroute /raiatrautmt/; 7. bea /^Л1Ь1Э»;8-, year—ear /js:(jis)—ia/; 9, quay—queue /kis—kj.is/t 10. admit — admittance /adlmit-adlmibns/; II. affect-effect /elfekt-ilfekt/t 12. draught-drought /draft—draut/,- 13. hair—hare—heir/hea—hea—ea/j 14. pour—poor —

4. very— vary /Iveri — Ivean/; 2. personal —personnel /Ipaisnal — tpa:saln el1/;
tf. suit—suite/sjujt—swH/; 4. patrol—petrol /paltraul—Ipetral/; 5, mayor—major
/теэ- imeidsa/; 6. riot-rout-route /Iraiat—raut-mt/; 7. bear-beer
/^8ЭЬ1Э;8/j(j)/ 9 /kikj/ 10 dit


paw /ря— риэ—рх/; 15. courage—carriage /Ikindg—Iksciij/; 16. inquire — acquire /mlkwais—elkwaia/

6. wolves /wulf, -vz/, wives /waif, -vz/, lives /laif, -vz/, leaves /li:f, -vz/,
knives /naif, -vz/, sheaves /jfcf, -vz/, halves /hccf, -vz/, selves /self, -vz/, elves
/elf, -vz/, loaf /lauf, -vz/, calves /kaf, -vz/, echoes /lekau, -z/, potatoes
/palteiteu, -z/, hostesses /lhaustas, -iz/, tigresses /Itaigras, -iz/, bases /ibeisis, -Iz/,
theses /löfcsu, -fcz/, crises /Ikraisis, -i:z/, analyses /alnselasis, -fcz/, men /msn—men/,
feet /flet—fit/, geese ДИ8—gfcs/, mice /maus—raais/, baths /ba:9, -8s/, houses
/haus, -iz/, classes flalas, -iz/, boxes /bioks, -iz/, dishes /dij, -iz/, inches /ratj», -iz/,
phenomena /fclnomman, -э/, foci /Ifaukas, -sai/

б./эи—»D,3-9/;/ei—a.z—s/;/3—9/;/tu—u, z—s/; /v—S/; /i—«,v—f/; /v-f/; /v-f/

7. /fmsilt—inlsAlt/ оскорбление—оскорблять; /lübdgikt—abtdsekt/ пред­
мет—возражать; /lautgau — lauttgau/ уход, выход—превосходить; /Iprudjus —
praldjt»/ продукция—предъявлять; /lsAbd3ikt —sabldgekt/ предмет—подчинять,
покорять; /lautgreuO — lautlgrau/ отросток—перерастать; /lautiei —autflei/ издер­
жки, расходы—тратить, расходовать; /laut(l)9reu—autlörau/ извержение—бро­
сать дальше (кого-л,); /Ipreznt—pnlzent/ подарок—преподносить, дарить;
/Iprsutest—’ praltest/ протест—протестовать; /itoimsnt—talment/ мучение—

8. Alliteration, rhyme, rhythm.

9. Through the repatition of the sounds /ju:, ei, ai, A/, syllabification and

Exercises p. 33

8. In the articulation of /p, t, k/ the vocal cords are taken apart and do not vibrate. In the production of /b, d, g/ the vocal cords are drawn close together and vibrate. In the /p, t, k/ articulation the force of exhalation is much greater than that in the production of /b, d, g/, therefore /p, t, k/ are voiceless fortis and /b, d, g/ are voiced lenis.

4. In the articulation of /m, n, rj/ the soft palate is lowered. In the articu­
lation of /ij/ it is not only lowered, but forms a complete obstruction with
the back part of the tongue. The air escapes through the nasal cavity.

5. In the articulation of /b/ the noise is produced when the flow of air
breaks the complete obstruction formed by both lips, /b/ is an occlusive plosive
stop noise consonant. In the articulation of hi the noise U produced when the
flow or air passes through the incomplete obstruction formed by the lower lip
and the edge of the upper teeth, hi is a constrictive noise consonant. In the ar­
ticulation of/tf/ the noise is produced by the flow of air first breaking a complete
obstruction between the tip of the tongue and the teethridge and almost imme­
diately passing through the narrowing formed between the tip of the tongue
and the teethridge, /tf/ is occlusive-constricttve, or affricate.

6. In the articulation of /w/the active organs of speech are the lips, which
form a round narrowing. In the articulation of /j/ the active organ of speech is
the middle part of the tongue which is raised to the hard palate and forms a
narrowing with it, through which the air goes out rather freely. In the articu­
lation of /h/ the walls of the glottis are slightly contracted when the air goes out
through it almost without any friction, /w/ is bilabial, /j/ is medlo-lingual,
/h/ is glottal.

8. The place of articulation (focus) in the production of /s/ (lenis) its be­tween the teethridge and the front part of the tongue. There is groove-shaped depression in the front part of the tongue, through which the air passes with friction: it passes through a round narrowing. The place of articulation (focus) in the production of III is between the lower iip and the edge of the upper teeth. The air passes through this narrowing with friction. The narrowing in III ar­ticulation is more or less flat.

10. /Iptpl/, /Ipeipa/, /lpa:p3S/, /Ipusabl/, /put/, /pens/, /Ipiti/, /pua/, /Iptsiz/, /pst/, /Ipeni/, /t«k/, /taim/, /taun/, /taiz/, /items/, /tuk/. /Iteeksiz/, /hl/, /itfctjaz/, /ta:nd/, /Itsutl/, /tus/, /tm/, /Unz/, /to:ts/, /kauid/, /Ikeaful/, /kcu/, Дик/, /IkAirad/, /küst/, /kist/, /Iksmpas/, /lke:tli/, /Ikutwig/, /IkAraits/, /)кл1э/

Exercises p. 44

4. Cardinal vowel No. 1 is pronounced with the position of the tongue
higher than for the Russian accented /и/ in such words as пили, били, лили.

Cardinal vowel No. 2 is pronounced with the position of the tongue narrower than for the Russian /e/ in the words месть, тесть.

Cardinal vowel No. 3 is similar to the Russian /э/ in the words ахо, это.

5. For instance: /t—d/bit—bid, bat—bad, debt —dead; /k~g/ duck —dug,
Dick —dig, tuck — tug; /т—д/ кот—код, вот—вод; /к—г/ док—дог; /с—з/
кос—коз, рос—роз.

П. The beginning of the articulation of (k—u>/ coincides with that of /i — u/

12. (a) /si :m—sins/ /mi:l—mil/ /mi:n—mins/ /sli.-p-slip/ /Ibst — list/ (c) /ttm—tim/ /Ш-fil/ /bto—ф


/3—dgtm/ /IfMin—Ifilirj/ /fct-it/ /slits—sits/ (g) /Itv-lw/ /Iffcve—Ihfti/ /Iblikan—bil/ /tj-fck—tjm/ /btt—bit/

33. (a) /bed—b£ed/ /9en—Эаеп/ /tplenti—plasn/ /els—Iffilis/ /Itete—dsede/

(c) /frentj1-—ran/ /pens—psents/ /Ibenal—Ibawau/ /Itwenti —twffin/ /I mem—Imaetg/

(e) /ded—deed/ /leni —tjelrs/ /IJeb-Jal/ /)men — Imasrid/ /Ihenn —lhaepi/

<fi) /Iheti-hajt/

/Isentral—Isaandi/ /ltjev»t-lt,fenl/ /Iraem—rneep/ /ivesl—Ivsljus/ /leldah — lenkfts/

t4. (a) /kam—клт/ /ISa—1глтп/

(b) /riid—nd/

/Stfel — Stil/

/krfck—knk/ /slfct—sht/ /sfck—sik/ (d) /sfcn—sm/ /Idtb—Idina/ /htt—hit/’ /bbt—bit/

(f) /f!:Z—fiz/

/mt—mist/ /Jffcz—9is/ /sttp—stik/

(h) /ht—him/ /Glim—9in/ /sfets—sits/

/Sti:p —Stlf/


(b) /hed—had/




/sillekt—nllseks/ (d) /end—and/




/Ihelpin — Ihspi/ (f) /ten—tsen/




/t Jest-t Jap/ (h) /lern —teokjbs/




(b) /ant—Unda/ /had—Hundred/

/dak —/ /’baskit—э’Ьлу/ /lak—flAf/ (d) /dan—dAn/ /bat —bAt/ /kat—kAt/ /matf — mAtf/
(f) /lhadli —!плш/ /1гаЭэ—rAbd/ /last—lAk/

/ban— IbAtn/ /Iak-Uk/ /Iklasiz— IbAsiz/

(c) /Imaval — 1шлш/ /l<tf—IIavIi/ /past —IpAzhrj/ /’makit—тлд/ /last—Плпаэп/

(e) /fanld —1лЗэг/ /Imasta — ImAgki /Istatid — IsUdi/ /lldlt

fh) /am—1аЗэ/
/lhadli —Ih/ /Istatid—istAdid/ /matf—nutf/ /haf—strAk/

/last—l (g) /frans—frAnt/


/adlvccntids—al Ьллг/


/post—bAt/ (i) /stffl—stAn/




/mask —inAst/

/tl;m—ten—tsen/ /hid—hed — hjed/ /lift—left-ted/ /lit—let—tek/ /m tn—Imem—
/torn—te:n—teen/ /кж1—кз:1—kffii/ /bad—bs:d—bsed/ /tjktj:trJtj
/jjr /ss—S3:—sad/ /Ikj— Ik3:tn—kset/

15. /bid-bed-bffid/

16. /э:1-з:1—Jffil/
/wD;k—W3 :k — waek/
До:-fa: —fat/

[Control Tasks p. 57

2. The allophones of the It! phoneme are for example: labialized in: rockr roof, rook, raw; devoiced in: present, practice, problem, protract; affricated in: tree, trim, troop, try, drain, dry, drop, draw; single tap in; throw, throng, three­pence, thrust.

3. As a result of palatalization in the Russian language consonants alwy
occur аз soft phonemes and the vowel phonemes turn to the /j/ V positional»
allophone of the vowel phoneme.

4, The examples may, for instance, be as follows: complementary distribu­
tion of /u/: pool, food, shoe, youth, cool, who, stoop, tube, hoof, booth, boot, rouge,
(Each word is given as an example of different /u/ environment, which
cannot be observed in other words.); contrastive distribution of /u/: book—beak,
foot—fit, book—back, book—beck, book—bark, put—pot, put—port;
free varia­
tion in the pronunciation of the words: decapitation /fäiiktepitteij’an, dUjksept-
Iterjan/, deciduous /dilsldjuas, dtlsidjwgs/.

Exercises p. 62

1. Work of the vocal cords: voiceless fortis vs. voiced lenis: pin—bin, pack—back, pie—bye, tie—die.


Active organ of speech and the place of articulation; labial, bHabial vs. Singual forelingual apical alveolar; penten, been—dean; labial bilabial vs. lingual backlingual: pole—coal, bait—gait; labial, labio-dental vs. labial bi­labial: fee—we, feltwell; labial, labio-dental vs. pharyngal:/ee—he; lingual, »forelingual apical vs. lingual forelingual cacuminal: sob—rob, sealreal, .■sole—role, siprip, sightright.

Manner of noise production: occlusive vs. constrictive: pitycity, paysay, pallsail, pole—sole, peelseal.

Voice or noise prevalence: occlusive noise (plosives) vs. occlusive sonorants i(nasal): pine—mine, debtnet, kickNick; constructive noise (fricatives) vs. •constrictive sonorants: fell—well, those—rose, soulrole, siprip, sight—right.

The number of noise producing foci: unicentral vs. bicentral: fellwell, fee—we.

The shape of the narrowing; constrictive with a flat narrowing vs. constric-iive with a round narrowing: failsail, feesee, footsoot, fatsat, fell—sell-

3. fa) The force of articulation rather than the presence and absence of
■voice: /p— b, t — d, к — g/,

(b) Manner or noise production: occlusive /p/ vs. constrictive HI, It — s/,
/d — z/.

Active organ of speech: bilabial /p/ vs. backlingual /k/, backlingual /k/ vs. forelingual apical /t/.

(c) Manner of noise production: occlusive /t/ vs. occlusive-constrictive /t|Y
or /d/ vs. /ds/; constrictive /J7 vs. occlusive-constrictive /tf/.

(d) Place of articulation and the nurober of foci: interdental /6/ vs. apical
Я/, alveolar /z/ vs. palato-alveolar /3/, alveolar /5/ vs. palato-alveolar /J/.

Manner of noise production: plosive /t/ vs. constrictive /3/.

(e) Position of the soft palate: oral noise /b/ vs. nasal sonorant /m/, or /d/
vs. /n/, or /g/ vs. /n/.

4. The sub-minimal pairs: marry measure, genre jar, teasure
ledger. All the other pairs are minimal.

Control Tasks p. 63

1. (a) man — nap, coming — cunning, seem — seen; (b) wield — yield,
wail — Yale; (c) pat — cat, supper — succour, leap — leak

2. (a) less — yes, drew — due, clue — cue, rung — young; (b) tame —
«ame, rudder — rugger, sinner — singer, bitter — bicker, bad — bag» bat —
hack, day«,- gay

3. (a) pine — fine, bee — thee, came — lame; (b) fare — chair, work —
jerk; (c) boat — moat, seek — seen, kick — king, deed — need, vain — lane,
sick—sing; <d) fare — chair, thine —wine, vain — lane; (e) thine — wine,
lame -~ same

5. /I, r, j/ after /p/ are devoiced; after /t/ the position of the tongue for hi
in try is not so cacuminal and hi is affricated; /i/ after It/ in tube is devoiced;
/w/ after It/ in twelve is devoiced; /1, r, I, w/ after /k/ are devoiced in clean, cream,
cue, quite.

Exercises pi 67

1. (а) /в—ж/. Both are back vowels, but /13/ is an open vowel of broad variation and /a:/ is a mid vowel of broad variation.

(b) /e—se/. Both vowels are front, but /e/ is a mid-open vowel of narrow
variation and /se/ is a low (or open) vowel of broad variation.

(c) /9: — d:/, /3:/ belongs to the group of central mid-open vowels of narrow
variation, /0:/ belongs to the group of back, fully back mid-open vowels of
broad variation.

(d) /ш— u/, Both vowels belong to the group of back high vowels, but /ш/
belongs to the subgroup of narrow variation and is fully bade, whereas /u/belongs
to the subgroup of broad variation and is a back-advanced voweL

(e) /se—ei/, /ее/1 is a frönt open vowel o! broad variation. The nucleus of the diphthong /ei/ is /e/ which is a front mid-open vowel of narrow variation.

m /я—эи/. /о:/ is a raid fully back vowel of broad variation. The nucleus of the diphthong /эй/ is a central mid-open vowel.

3. (а) /и—ai/, /эй—аи/; (b) /в—еэ/

4. The phonemes /fc,ei, ac.a:/ in the first row of each column are the longest,
they are shorter in the second, and the shortest is the third row.

5. Stability of articulation.

Control Tasks p. 68

1. (a) /t—e—a/ bead—bed—bad, deed —dead—dad; (b) /аг —э:—a/
cab—curb—cub, bad —bird—bud, tan—turn—ton, hat—hurt—hut

2. cart—card Boz—bars don—down
wart—what caught—cot cord—cod

3. {a) known — noun, phoned — found, hay — high, bay — buy, no —
now, hoe — how, tape — type

(b) hear — hair, beer — bear, ear — air, fear — fair, rear — rare, tear — tear

Exercises p. 74

5. (a) kJ:p, ipi-siz, Itl-ffaz, Ipfcpl, Iparpas, Iksitn, ta:nd, lka:li, k<t, kxts,.
pats, pKz, teik, taim, taiz, tiaz, keuld, Iteutl, ksa, Ipranrj;

(b) til, kist, tin, Ipiti, Ipeni, tel, Items, Ipendsltan, Iksempes, Iksembnan,
Iteksi, put, tuk.’kuk, IkArants, 1кл1э, pAmpt, nlpAblik, IkAvad, tAnz, Ipnsrbl,
k-ost, Ikulidj, tos

(c) spent, stei, staun, IstAdi, stik, Istatid, (splendid, ifcslprerrans, iks’tensivh,
Ibaskit, Iklismrj, ikslplem, pleis, р!азп, Iklasiz, plem, krfck, krept, кгир, Iplaitfwm,
a3kt, kept, lukt

6. Iptpl, pet, Ipa:msn3nt’, Ittiq; kamp, Ikitjan; Ibiljsdz; Iditarsnt, aildia; get,
algein, ga:lz >

ipsigativ, lepildemik; lkEeps]u:Iz; bed; ibeta; Idifrant

lpi:siz, pens, Ipeitferz; Itventi, Isikslttn, Itainirj; Ikeafli; beidz, big, (Anbilltvablr Idifrsnt, daunt; Iginrz, Igivirj, gauz

Ipiisiz, nlpead, Ipaipss; tiez, teik, te:nd; btn, big, bed, bsek, Ьэи8; aildia, dilsaidid, Ididnt, dei; get, gest, geilz, Igsuirj

Iptktjg, (ptanad, ikslpekt, pee; Kifttfcn, misted, Icttsst*, ktp, Ibaskit, vslkeijent
Iksempes; Ы, Wsaid, imjbserasinj IstAdi, depös, deiz, Idsedr; Igigl,, gets, дз:1г„
дэи ,

pirjk, ikslpranans, Ipe^i, peitj tin, Iwnntid, teik, ternd; Idrinkirj, keim,. Iksandid, lfce:li; btri, Ibiikan, bit, basd, Iba’.tn; kanldi^gn, Inwdid, aildra; giv, get, ga:Iz

islpejeli, Ipsetan; stil, pölteiteuz, Itjielip; kbp, glkeisenl, kaen, lukfupai; bt,. IJugabM, Ibakbaun; dt; dra, imAdi, da-.t; givz, Uuggast, Iregiulö

ЫрЫщ, peid, Ipjurplz, Ip3:fikt; t!:tj stik,- ltju;zdi, tiaz; ki:p, llukirj, Iksrid3, keuld; bt, albeid, bask, baut; mldfcd, Idim, ldju;h, deit; Igivn, gest, algen, .algaU’

Iptenin, pit, nlpeid, Ipaesmd33; stif, Isiti, greulteak, ta:nz; ktp, Ibreikin, kserid3, ksuld; Ibbin, best, bsek; 1Ьз:1эи; di:l, Iditiz, die, ded; tgetirj, geiv, gaui

7. Ihffipi, Iliikap,’ IkAbad, |nju(:)lmaunJ8, 1ащ, 1р1лтэ, bum, Itpmas,
Ihsn, Swtsl, Ibukei, lh?arjkatfif, iwmza, Ikemist, laarjks, Ibsnkwit, iklsept, I
gaust, no:, sain, 1лп, Idaisfrsem, sai, plaü, eit

Exercises p. 77

6. jan—jAn. пряжа—молодой
‘бт—6in тонкий—вещь
Igivlra—Igivirj уступить—riaжертвование
ldraiv’mw.ldraivirj Ъ

1клщ1т— 1клтщ приходить—приход

sah—ял о солнце—пропетый

klfcn — klm чистый—прилипать

inutlBirj — 1плШд не вещь—ничто

(дэЫгп— Igauirj входить — отъезд

эип— 1эшд собственный—долг

sein — IseiiQ нормальный—пословица

< brerk/in — I breikrg врываться—торможение

Uuklm—llukirj быстрый взгляд—смотрящий

6. brig, 1ллг, ‘iggland, IJAgga, Iem8in els, lnA6irj av 9a’ Ikamd, Iwihrjli,
tteikirj it, Imiagld, Isttpig, 6io, UiArjgn, Ifijirj, Imocmrj, Idramrjl вп, Пигщэ, IJAOgs
Jt !юп, sprig, Isfcirj э Ifrend Inf, Iklaspirj га 1Ьэи9 Ihsendz

7. Iraitirj, frtdirj, Igamrj, gtm, wen, sAg, Налддп, sAk, Btrj, Öifc,ihaerja,
, rsQk, kaum, 1э;Ьт, liogiij, Imiggld

Exercises p. 84

4. thin — sin тонкий — грех thick — sick толстый —> больной thought — sought думал — искал Forth — force вперед — сила mouth — mouse рот — мышь thumb — some большой палец — какой-нибудь worth — worse ценность — худший thick — tick толстый — тикать thought — taught думал — учил three — tree три — дерево seethe — seize кипеть — хватать lathe — laze токарный станок — безделье then — den тогда — логово though — dough хотя — тесто seethe — seed — смятение — семя heath — heat пустошь — жара both — boat оба — лодка forth— fought вперед — боролся clothe — close одевать — закрывать breathe — breeze дышать — бриз there — dare там — визов other — udder другой — вымя worthy — wordy достойный — многословный months месяцы

the eighth zone восьмая зона withstand противостоять clothes одежда sixth шестой is thin тонкий it’s this это who’s that кто это

6. faund^ieauzand, fa:st—63:st, fat—9si, Irk—Or*, fmz—6inz, def—depö

II. o:l—hal весь— зал 1Э—hia ухо—слышать aut~-haus внешний —дом at—hat искусство—сердце at—hut следовало бы —горячий is—hiz есть—его aust—haus выгонять—-дом it—hit это—удар il—hil больной —холм sez—1иев как—имеет

sed -— hged добавить—имел and —hsend и—рука am—ham рука—вред adz—hasndz добавляет—руки еэ—иеэ воздух-—волосы

14. sheep, sheet, sheen, ship, should, shook, shed, shell, shake, shave, shade, shame, shape, shy, shine; election, condition, delegation, competition, organiza­tion, station, pleasure, leasure, decision, vision, occasion, measure

16. П, Jtp, jAt, fij, brjij, lam;, Jfi/ra, Ispejal. Isteijsn, Ijusual
(р1езэ, Jup, ‘Juga, Jud, Паз/, IbntiJ, linglij, laenkjas, Isenkjash, islpejali,
1к lkl

16, pas, isertnh, Isimk, sai3, liest?, ail, lhauziz, IhAzband, di!z9:t,

Ifiziks, Issfata, ilnAf, draft, lef I tenant, mevju(:}, Imseoju:, lgac]zws:9i, ig

Ivuik], IJepad, I Jugs, aljira, Ivsijan, Inaujan, Isaujal, Ik on Jans, IJivaln, tfeiz,
^ 1р1езэ, dl 1

Exercises p. 90

2. right, ride, ripe, cry, crisis, price, gray, bread, read, reap, reason, reach,
ridge, risk, friend, France, ring, rod, ran, rang, rot, wrong, great, try, rule,
roof, room, red, rest, ready, press, present, rash, rag, treason, written, row,
road, present

3. reits, red, ram, reust, raund, rsuz, lreko:d, iregj-ula, Ireilwei, 1глшп, Inalr,
Imsari, Inuend, frendz, Ikrasau, draiy, Ipraisiz,. tr», draund, Idresig, IwAri, Ifwid,
fhAndnd, Iterapritfa, Ikssnd, Ipiarrad, Iburaud, IkArents, tdifrent, Iflva, IkAmfst,
lhi;9a, W3:ld, almenka, istgslret, Imtidn, Inrats, 1тд(?э, wa:, Iwran, Istneri, 1кз:Ь„
IkAlad, Ineva, fa, Iststn, Ifiga, W3:k, da:z, pat, h:, ka

5. /ля, ju:fl, ja:, je:, jet, Ijestadi, ljust tu, njnz, Ihjuansn, mju(:)lziam, sju:ft
fjtt, rilvjus, ju;zd, Ikaepsjuiiz • ■ —

9. The English /r/ is a cacuminal sounds the Russian /p/ is a trilled one.
/U is pronounced with the middle of .the tongue raised not so high as for

the Russian /й/, which results in the more «noisy» character of the /ft/ articu­lation.

/1/ is «light», it is pronounced with the front secondary focus. The Russian /л/ is pronounced with the back secondary focus,

/i/ is «dark» because it is pronounced with the back secondary focus. The Russian /л’/ is veiy «soft» which is the result of the front secondary focus in its articulation.

/w/ is biiabial and bicentral, it is pronounced with the back secondary focus. The Russian /в/ is labio-dental and unicentral.

10. For instance: ел—ель, пол—Поль, кол—коль.

11. /W—v/, /e—ae/, /fc—i/, /re—e/ are separate phonemes.

12. Jes, alpmjen, Unjan, jttlnait, mjut, Injtute, Ijuarap, Isju(;)id5, wud, to:k,
fauk, bctm, llinkan, witf, wahs, Ikwaia, hu:z, talwo:dz, sad

Exercises p. 93

2» ЛГ» dg/ are pronounced as* indivisible clusters of two sounds and represent single phonemes ДГ/ and /dj5/. The combinations /tr, dr, ts, tz, te, dflf/ consist °3/ end6ntphonemeseach: /V АЛ /d/ // /t// /t/ // /i/ /6A

3. chin, check, chess, chain, China, child, rich, much, chop, watch, chalk,
coach, Jim, jinn, Jimmy, age, page, change, Jenny, Jack, Jane, George, Germany,

4. tfj:p, tJ4:k, pf, t/m, Itjfflnl, IdsentI, ld3ent!i, dgstmz, Istreindge,
ritf, witf, sAtf, mAtf, lAntf, WDtf, eidg, p«d3, ladj, lkDlid3, Ibtids,

Imaentfista, itnaänjulfsektj’araz, mldpimant, 9!remd3mant, mlgeidjmant, diltstft, Itempritfa, Inselfaral

6. tfaild, Ineitfa, Ikwestfen, Irait/as, Imtstfif, d50i, dsem, djips, п, lbAd3it, апиМз, Igrsendäa, Isauld33, Id

Control Task p. 105

(a) sit-down, read^,text 1, writedown, next^,time, glad^to see you,
what^can I do, like^to have it, what^.country, good^,time, tea and^cake,

don’t_Jike, I’d.__ like, mashed^potatoes, mustard_p lease, got^to eat, that^pub,

■work_now, difficult^to deal, silk^dress, but_good, hit^nose;

(b) repeat^the noun, in^the noun, atwthe blackboard, clean_the board,
online seventh, rounds,the city, and^the guest, on^this, on^,the boy’s plate,
just^thirsty, tell^the girl;

(c) will^you read louder, will^you please, will^you tell^rae, tell^,the girl

Exercises p. 115 I.

, (a) si:, wi;, trt, Ы:, mi, hi, ft;

(b) sl;m, rfcd, klfcn, sfcn, dtl, lpi:pl, IbziIi;

|(c) tjfcp, swi:p, tftf, trtt, lfcst, krtk, wik

2. $Ъ, lv, IkDnkrfct, ftt, mit, nts, nlsfcv, faltfcg, IfcsBiit, kfc, kfc

3. m, il, big, wirjgz, pit, stik, klifs, зрпц, Bio, sik, nst, Isih, Ibtldtg, ig
kig, lbu|[E, Igimz, Ikvli, Ibizi, Imimts, tgauin, ldij»[z, btlgmz, Iknhds, Iwimin,

kalmit, lrna:si, ibritsn, Iwtndau, Imtsiz, Isimptamz, Jhtrlidi, Imtnstid, iklsaitid, ‘(в), Iheziteit, Ipnvilid3, Ikntisizm, ilnitnt, Imedsin

4. did, lid, IglEdli, IfrMi, lirjks, 1клп^, Ivilidj, IwdJiz, lrLK3is, Ibuksiz,
, Ikrpiz, llaudid, Ifatmtin, Ibiskit, Ifraidr, sl:y, lletis, Iftjnd, lfo;fit, 1квн

5. bed, sed, help, tel, ]et, hed, Items, Iwe3a, Imemba, lleta, drest, (sets,
piij, Ismwei, lenvid, 1р1езэ, Ifrendh, Idresirj, Idessht, Iseprit, Iheziteit, raailself,

nlmemba, inldevs, hau I tel, misted, fat get, illevn

6. rsd, get, tent Isevn, hed, ded, et, 9э temz, Ibercal

7. glsed, baad, plsen, kasn, swaem, bl©ok, drajgk, sakt, sset, Ifaensi, Iglsadli,
IJsetau, Iffidid, Isepkjas, Ibsedli, itraeJik, Шагрэп, Idsadi, Isffidms, bilgsen, iglzaekth,
ilmsedjm, vslkaebjularr, IpraugrEem, Isaenwid3tz, imBenjulfselctfaz, Ibsslkara, Isseknfais

8. Iksen, laempl, hav, Isaeman, plsed, Jsemlpem, laebssluitli, laebstrakt, I

9. ck, ba:, fa;, ka, a:m, ask, ka:d, past, fam, hctf, po:t, lads, frctns, gras,
dak, gad, peck, stctt, sma;t, Ia:st, ha:d, niisk, Idccnsin, Ibctskio, IIcuFei], 1гсеоэ,
lhadlj, Ihaiba, Ictnsa, leftist, Ifaä9, Ibaskit, lldasiz, la:t[klz, la:k|ein{d)3(3)I,
dilpatja, mllctdj, stllaist

10. ma-st, lansa, la:st, ta, pit, lcuf, Ibakh, lhafad, hat

11. un, nod, wuz, rod, wiont, двп, d3Db, tot, Ion, sun, 1ЬвЭэ, Ibunit,
fdukta, (müdl, Ihiostal, ionist, Inudid, Ibudi, lufa, Ihnland, Iruki, Isphd, Ikaemit,
lükjupai, Ikotid3[z, Iprüsparas, d3[lumitn, Ifnlsuitt, Ihulidi, iWDznt, lsi:n vi

12, hüt, Ision, Ifwm, Ikwohbi loümaritek, Iso:sid3, ‘по1к1з, j’pt

13. тз:, dro:, o:l, кэ:1, bo:, ÖDit, ho:s, to:k, so:t, bo:t, d3s:d3, Jo:, b:mz,
d lwo:ta, Ivraikin, 1тэ:ти, bilfo:, 1э:1зэи, lekspo:ts, rmlpoitans, bau»,

, b:kistra, lo:[talgeSa, af tko:s, rfo:t[lfo:

14. port, fo;t, flo:, do:, kD:st ko:t, fo:, рэ:, гэ:, wo:, bro:d, bo:tf гз:0, :1, jo:n, pa:, 9э:

15. gud, rum, wud, kuk, fut, tuk, put, sut, Juk, lukt, Ibujrz, imanjulfäektjaz,
Iwudn, Ikudnt, Iwudnt, Iwudland, Irestful, Iwuman, I put laut, I put Itm, gud I bar}
Ijiffitjroli, tnkalpitjuleit, Iksafli

16. put, puj1, pul, Iwustid, wulf, luk, stud, tuk, kud, j»ud, Ikurra

17. flu, Ztt, tit, hu:, tlS, JUS, jtS, fju:, tru, /u:d, SlMl, skis], jufl, mU:V, ГЦ:Г,

h]u:d3, nju:, Ijusuah, Isbsslicth, Inju(:)lmaunj3, Immvirj, Isevinju:, тртэ Ibjurfiful, rilvju:, irumd, Isjusaid, Ivffilju:, Iregjitla, Ipju^lz, Ihjttmsn, Iktltjj

18. blu:, md, ml, d3«:n, kitl, turn, gru:p, wund, bru:z, bru:, malnurva

19. tjun, Ihjunra, jits, kju:, Itjuzdi, sjust, Injista, fju-., Ibjir-tt, hjuz

20. WAn, глп, kn, jAn, bAs, fflAtJ», tAn, JAO, клт, 1лЭэ, 1злшэ, г
1шл9э, э1плЭэ, IkArgnts, tjAkl, IwAn, lhAndrad, 1пл8ц), 1галш, IfAm, Ikvli,
IkAntn, IkAtnpas, mAst, d3Ast, ItrAbl, IwAndaful, IwAndslaend, mlstrAkta, [intra-
IdkJ Ii

21. mAst, An!d3Ast, d3Ads, ШлтЬлд, dAz, frAnt, э1тл5/1тлш, flAd, ikApJ,

TAf, Uf

22. wa:, hsid, wa:d, lws:kaz, ISarti, sta:, ta:nd, lte:nnj, lbs:tn, hs:, J3:z, iba:bu,
ga:lz, ba:dz, wstk, Itaiki, lka:tn, fa:st, ws^d, wa:s, 1|э:1эк, Isa’.tnh, W3:6, da:t,

23. sts:, iffla:tl, lka:nl, Ьз:д, Iwarks, lta:na, ns;s, !a:

24. glgen, bUtjj]» slbaut, alkros, elbei, glpDn, falget, sslpraiz, [sigalret, ipikaldili, kgnlfes, pslhseps, salpauz, kanldijan, pglsent, hslself, ts ipli:z, ta ‘step, Ээ Isüg, ta Idu;, te IfiJ, 0э lga:lz, 1рв:щэпэп1, Iprnbebli, Ifamsli, iwAndalsend Iwudlsnd, idekareit, ighmarm, Imsenijists, Idesalit, Irekagnaiz, Itrsevls, Ibselksni

Exercises p. 134

1. (a) When preceded by /w, I, 0, s, d, tf, r, j, h, m, n/ the /i:/ phoneme is pronounced: as labialized in /wi:/; with the labiodental, position. for /f/ in /Ifi:v9/; with the interdental position of the tip of the tongue in /6i:m/; with the apical constriction (round narrowing) in /si:/; with the apical occlusion for /d/ in /di:l/; with the cacuminal position of the tip of the tongue for /r/ in Ihy.pzl; with the palatal position of the bulk of the tongue for /j/ in /ji:Id/; with the glottal (pharyngal) narrowing for /h/ in /hi:/; as nasalized after /m, n/ in /mi:lz, mi:, ni:dnt/.

(b) When followed by / b, v, Э, t, 1, J1, tf, к, д, m, n/ the /i:/ phoneme is pronounced:1 with the bilabial release in /gri:b/; with the labio-dental release in /li:v/; with the interdental release in /Ji:6, bri:S/; with the apical occlusion in the final stage in /i:t, fi:l/; nasali’ed before /m, n/, with the velar closure in /bi:k, Itg/; retracted.

II. Accommodation, reduction, elision

tongue in /fiJV; with the interdental position of the tip of the tongue in /Girjks, 9irj/; with the apical position of the tip of the tongue in /dsd, sit, lift/; as retracted in /Igiva/; with the cacuminal position of The tip of the tongue in /ntJV; as retracted Jn /kil/; with the glottal (pharyngal) narrowing for /h/ in /hid/.

(b) the /r/ phoneme is pronounced: as nasalized in /him/;2 with the labio­dental release in /if, hv/; with the interdental release in /mi6, wiS/; with th&

II. Accommodation, reduction, elision1 That is the first stage and the beginning of the medial stage of the vowel are affected.

a Thai is the final stage ‘is affected.

apical release in /iz, bil/; as nasalized in /tin/; with the palato-alveolar position of the tip of the tongue in the final stage in /паз/; as retracted in /pik, big/.

Control Tasks p. 136

1. Vowel No. I /i:/, quantitative changes: it is the longest in: sea, we, tree,, he. It is shorter in: easily, meals, fever. It is the shortest in: cheaper, sleet, speaker, teach, keep, sheep.

The quality of the vowels depends on the articulatory characteristics of the consonants which precede or follow them. E. g. in sea I’v.l is modified under the influence of the forelingttal, apical, alveolar, voiceless, fortis, constrictive* /s/; in we — under the influence of the bilabial, constrictive sonorant /w/; in meals — the nasal, bilabial, occlusive sonorant /ml; in cheaper — the lingua], forelingual, apical, palato-alveolar, voiceless fortis constrictive/t]/; in tree — the lingual, forelingual, cacuminal, post-alveolar, constrictive sonorant h/;. in fever ■— the labial, labio-dental, voiceless, fortis, constrictive IV; in sleet — the lingual, forelingual, apical, alveolar, constrictive «light» /J/; in speaker — the labial, bilabial, voiceless, fortis, occlusive /p/; in he — the pharyngali (glottal) voiceless fortis, constrictive /h/; in teach — the lingual, forelingual, apical, voiceless fortis, ocelusive III; m sheep — the lingual, forelingual, apica]„ palato-alveolar voiceless fortis constrictive Ц1. Etc.

Control Tasks p. 143 1.


A. (1) a) pay, make, pain, weigh, way, waste, pale, Wales, paint; b) face;;
(2) b) lake, lay, day, late, lain, David, sane, taken; c) shape; d) rain, ray; (4^
game, case, gave.

B. (I) a) game, famous, able, shape; b) David, gave; (2) b) again, pain, case„
rain, late, -waste, pale, sane, Wales, face; c) age; (4) make, lake, ache, taken-


A. (1) a) boating, poker, motor, poet, motive; b) foe; (2) a) though; b) don’t,,
total, social, son, nose, noticed; c) shoulder, jokes; d) road, bureau; (3) yolk;.
(4) go, gold, cosy; (5) hope, hotel, hold.

B. (1) a) hope; b) over; (2) a) both; b) boating, hotel, hold, only, follow,
road, shoulder, gold, don’t, old, cold, motor, poet, motive, total, nose, cosy,,
noticed; c) social; (4) poker, yolk, jokes.


A. (1) a) why, wild, mild, while, my, Michael; b) profile; (2) b) die, nine,,
silence, side, like, climb; d) right, rise, bright; (4) kind, kindly, kite; (5) high.

B. (1) a) climb; b) wife; (2) b) kind, wild, mild, nine, while, silence, profile,,
right, side, kindly, isles, eyes, idea, quite, bright; (4) like, Michael.


A. (1) a) pound, mouth; b) found; (2) a) thousand; b) south, now, down,,
sound, loud; d) round, drown; (4) couch; (6) how.

B. (2) a) south, mouth; b) drown, out; thousand, down, round, pound,,
found, loud; c) couch.


A. (1) a) boy, point; (2) b) soil, employ, noise; c) join, enjoy, joint; t; (4) i b)

() ) y, poit; (2) b) oil, employ, d) destroy; (4) coin.

B. (2) b) join, point, coin, soil, noise, joint.


A. (I) a) Crimea; b) severe; (2) b) dear, near, idea, museum; (3) year; (5)

B. (1) museum; (2) b) accordeon, ears, real, realize, period; d) weary.



A. (I) a) parent, anywhere, bare, despair, pair. Mary; b) various, farewell;
(2) a) there; b) stare, stairs, dare; (4) care, square, carefully.

B. (1) b) carefully; (2) b) stairs; d) parents, various, Mary.


A. (1) a) poor, moor; (2) b) tour, during; c) sure, usual.

B. (2) b) usual; d) during, Europe,

2. sauÖ, smlsiak, (stremdgli, falsiliteitid, Iwamdirj, риэ, Ifrafeuin, Imlaiz, 4mauta, lhaitn, palteitauz, lamralnait, IQiata, Id3uanst, Imsen, Imaikal, lamdgilau, ■Jd3em fsa, ml dormant, Itaifbid, ljuarsp, с|иэ

Exercises p. 152

1. a) /le/ before the mediolingual sonorant /j/ is a a advanced variant of
the fully back /le/, the back part of the tongue moves forward closer to the
position for the mediolingual /j/,

b) /e/ before the dark /1/ is more open.

c) /k, g/ followed by /le/, /!:/ are slightly rounded. They are slightly pal­
atalized before Д/, /se/.

d) /Pit.g/ followed by /vu/, /ж/ are labialized, /p, t, g/ palatalized^efore /i:/.

2. Alveolar /t, d, n, 1/ become dental followed by /Э, 9/.

3. Post-alveolar /r/ becomes alveolar after /6, S/, /r/ is devoiced preceded
% Ih i. t, 6/, labialized followed by /d:, k/.

4. In (a) /d, g, g/ are non-labialized, in (b), (c) /d, 3, 1, g/ are labialized
‘.followed by /w/»

5. Sonorants /w, j, 1, r/ are devoiced most noticeably in the initial clusters
Up], pr, tw, tr, kw, kl, kr/ when followed by a stressed vowel. In the clusters
M’ tJ» kj, И. fr, fj, 9r, Öj, Öw, sw, si, sj, sm, sn/ devoicing is less noticeable.

8. Assimilation of place in final alveolars:

a)/I/ to /p/ b)/d/ to /b/ c)/t/ to /k/
/braip blui/ /0з:Ь pat/ /jak keik/i
/dap bo:d/ /heb boi/ /braik grtn/

/waipwoj»/ /reb rai:t/ d)/d/ to /g/ /hctb walk/ /haig kssj/ /heg ge:l/

e) In/ to /o/ f) /s/ to /J/

/in Iktudif/ /Ikrismoj IJüpin/

/’sArj glcusiz/

g) reciprocal assimilation before /j/

/igetfa: Ikaut/ /Iwauntja*/

/ai Ih3:d5üi kAmlm/ /Ikudntju-/

/IbleJ Jtt/ /IJudntJiE/

/tkbu3 зэ: ibuks/ /Ikantjus/

) /Э/ is assimilated, following /n, 1, s, z;

/in пэ 1ко;пэ/ /Iwots ss Ipumt/ /IkI la Ibuks/ /Iwesz za ibrednaif/

■9. a) /kief Ipeeldt/ /1Ьлд Itelafaun/

/weis Ipeipa/ /,n ntf ifedsUfs/

ftfl L?LLz//lnd3 Iserfes/
/Ibaö Оэ Jbeibi/ /idaiv biflau/

ftf*l Lstr?bnz//ld Ife/

b) /Itrap bai/ /kJauZ l

/lkra>k iputs/ /IbffcöIdJpli/

/idAb Ifitm/ c) /Islaem 9э Ida:/

/Iheabrem Iskfcm/

/istrirj Imjuizikl instranrant/

Control Tasks p. 155

10. (I) Aspiration in all English words beginning with /p, f, k/. No aspi­ration in Russian words beginning with /п, т, к/.

(2) Short English vowels are not affected by loose GV transition in /top/,
/pit/, /Ipepa/, etc.—close CV transition.

a) Russian soft initial /т, с, д, p/ result from the loose CV transition in
тина, сила, день, ряд, etc. «

(3) Labialization with the lip protrusion in: бук, дуло. Labialization with
no lip protrusion in: топь, поле, Коля, роль, лом, ток, соль, поли, ком. English
consonants followed by /о:, u:/ are pronounced with slight labialization (no lip

1). (1) lateral plosion: curdled, muddle, needless, mottled, at last, red tight* huddle, good looks;

(2) nasal plosion: Britain, oughtn’t, admit, madness, witness, partner, cotton,
great number, sudden, captain, at night;

(3) loss of plosion: actor, begged, what kind, back to back, big books, slept,
top coat, black goat, ripe cheepe. • v

12. /a/—more back in /ka/; /j/ —more high in /lpju:ta/;» /t/ more back In Д

13. Care should be taken 1) to avoid regressive voicing or devoicing of the-sounds given in bold type: /laenikdaut/,- /Ibatfdej/, /Iblakbsd/, /Imedsm/, /10» Ibuk/, /llets Igou/, /Iwuts оэ Itaira/; 2) to pronounce alveolar /s, z, 6, 1/ as-dental, since they are followed by-the interdental /9, Э/: /stksö, hiz Win, Ipcts-Ззт, liz Iflaet, fif8sf Isimös löea, lsu:3z öam, ttel 9эт, Im 9э/.

Exercises p. 163

1. с, с, с, eau, ou, ough

3. Graphemes Phonemes Letters

b-a-o-b-a-b /Ib-ei-a-b-as-b/ b-a-o-b-a-b

v-e-s-t /v-e-s-t/ v-e-s-t

d-u-l-y /ld-jui-1-i/ d-u-I-y

sh-i-p Я-1-Р/ s-h-i-p

d-i-sh /d-i-J/ d-i-s-h

aw-E-u-1 /la-f-u-1/ a-w-f-u-1

d-aw-n /d-a:-n/ d-a-w-n

1-igh-t /1-ai-t/ 1-i-g-h-t

h-igh /h-ai/ h-i-g-h

w-or-k /w-3:-k/ w-o-r-k

ar-ch-a-i-c /a-lk-ei-i-k/ a-r-c-h-a-i-c

ai-r-y /lea-r-i/ a-i-r-y

1-au-gh /1-cc-f/ 1-a-u-g-h

w-a-tch-ed /w-D-tJ-t/ w-a-t-c-h-e-d

4. <r> = /r/ in rait, alfreid, prei, trai, tven, drai; <our>==/ua/ in tourT
<ear>=/ra/ in tear.

5. <ed> indicates the past indefinite morpheme -ed which is pronounced*
ft, id, d, d, id, t, d, d/.

6. psekt, bad, реэ, frank, weg, IweSa, sl;n, bs:8, Isfchrj, ssul, bsa, preir rein, peil, еэ, farad, pemz, tfcz, pi:s, ffct, wit/, die, bau, bred, rait, pra,

3>!:tj hra, far, teil* nidil, sAri, bfct, breik, meiz, wi:k, IkArsnt, Isferral, vein, sei, -seil, Ikumphnrentr’hea, bb, sfc, mit, hi=l, fea, sent, raud, tfcrn, ho:s, Iben, gert, ■plem, kl:

договор «-1 упакованный, под запором — засов, пара — подрезать, Стричь — груша, франк — искренний, носить — где, погода — ли, сцена — увиденный, койка — рождение, потолок — скрепленный печатью, подош­ла — душа, голый — медведь, просить, умолять — добыча, дождь — цар­ствование, ведро — бледный, воздух — наследник, оштрафованный — на­ходить, старания, труды — оконные стекла, чай — дразнить, мир — кусок, подвиг — ноги, колдунья — который, дорогой — олень, гнуть — сук, хлеб — воспитанный, правый — писать — обряд, церемония, ровня — дам-■<5а, пляж — бук, слышать — здесь, мех — пихта, ель, рассказ — хвост, мужской — почта, солнце — сын, бить — свекла, ломать — тормоз, куку­руза — лабиринт, слабый — неделя, смородина — течение, серийный — овсянка, кукурузные хлопья, тщетный — вена — флюгер, продавать — ■ячейка, парус — продажа, комплимент — дополнение, волосы — заяц, голубой — дул, море — видеть, мясо — встречать, исцелять — пятка, плата за проезд — ярмарка, цент — посланный — запах, ехал верхом — дорога, бригада — кишеть, хриплый — лошадь, ягода — хоронить, во­рота —походка, ясный — самолет, ключ — набережная

7. (а) me-ter, ca-ring, beau-ty, sour-Iy, sure-ly, tea-cher, cry-ing, six-ty;
i(b) pray-s; praise, child-‘s, read-able, mis-rule, penni-less, un-known, dis-like,
im-mortal, ir-rational

8. Mute (r), (e) indicate historical length or the diphthongal nature of the
preceding vowel phonemes (second columns a); (nn), (ss), (tt), (rr) indicate the
short character of the preceding vowel phonemes (second columns b).

9. Эйбел, Эндрю, Эни, Болдуин, Бернард, Дороти, Эстер, Джеральд,
.Хыого, Аира, Джин, Джереми, Кит, Лайонел, Мейбл, Марта, Пий

Control Tasks p. 164

1, face, Eac-ing, nic-er, choic-est, гас-y, princ-ess, age, rag-ing, 1 arg-er, urg-ent, bu!g-y, burg-ess, rage-cl, change-ling, outrage-ous, face-d, nice-ly, huge-ly, engage-ment, change-able


cu-ring fires

2. a) cur-ing fire-s cheer-less cure-d oc-curr-ed stirr-ing stirr-ed pin-ing pine-d work-er work-ing work-ed thorough-ly cult-ure nat-ion cit-y redd-er cheer-ing

3. ai=/er, еэ е, г, э/; /eid, ffesri, /streit/; au = /o:, cc/r/lagast, sd:s, Ы, *!■/; ay, ei = /ei/; /«Ml«, Ьегз/; ее, ео — /%!/: /freit, wei/.






/Ista: -no/





/IW3:-kirj/ /W3>kt/







sed, Ifauntin, (poitnt, Ivilan/; aigh=/ej/: =/i, e/: /Ipfcpl, Jerepans, ‘jlepad/; eigh =

4. sealing, ceiling, ceiling; soles, sole, sole, soul, soul; bare, bear, bear, ‘bear, bear; pair, pear, pair; write, right, right, right; vain, vain, vanes, vein, vein

Exercises p. 177

1. (I) CVC, СГС; (2) CVCC, СГСС; (3) CVCCC, СГССС; (4) CSVS, CSVS,
ССГС; (5) CV, СГ; (6) CCV (CSV), ССГ; (7) VC, ГС; (8) CCCV (CCSV), СССГ;

2. (a) lpf>pJ, Ibjtc-gl, Isse-tfal, Itrai-fl, In-äm, lei-pnl, ib-kwal, Шэе-рэпг,
Imai-blz, Ips-tanz, idrse-gnz, Is:-d3ant, Isai-vant, ili-snd, Ihe-raldz, le-randz,
Jpsa-rents, Itaan-d39nts, Ipei-Jants, iskse-falds


3. 2, 2, 4, 4, 2, 4, 3, 5, 3, 4, 3, 4, 6, 2, 3, 5, 6

7. SyllablesSyllabographs
W3:k work
1уз:-кэ wor-ker
pamd pined
Ipai-mq pi-ning
Jsta;rlij stir-ring
Э-lljgid o-ccurred
kjuad cured
(tfis-lis cheer-less
lkjua-пл cu-ring
f tfta-rtrj chee-ring
lfa(i)9-ni] li-rtng
lred-(d)a red-der
(net-Jan na-tion
ikAt-tfa cul-ture
J9A-r9-Ii tho-rough-ly

Control Tasks p. 178

1. (a) at, aunt, elks, asks, ebbed

(b) took, lifts, texts, clenched, tip, struck, strays, thrust, bet, fact, fret,

(c) pray, straw, boy, pea

(a) ил, от, астр

(b) рад, ЗАГС, горсть, скетч, взрыв, всласть, сфинкс, чувств, сон, Минск,
гипс, здесь, злак

(c) мгла, кто, та, что

2. а) Ь) | «) Ь) I а) Ь) I а) Ь) | а) Ь) I а) Ь) I а) Ь)
st|lm|bk|ms|sk|gv|tp etc.

3. IkAm-fe-ta-bl, Ik-o-hds, bi-ffad, graund, Ikt-tfan, fpaen-trr, IstA-dr, isev-ral,
tAp-lstsaz, lbsd-ru:m, Inaisa-rr, 1Ьа9-гшт, Ifai-m-tfa, Imai-dan, 9un, illek-ltn-si-ti,
Idsae-njue-n, lfeb-шэ-п, Is-gast, sap-ltem-Ьэ, эк-lteu-ba, nau-lvem-ba, di-lsem-Ьэ,
Iwen-zdi,’ Itju-zdi, 10s:-zdi

4. pa-rents, fire, piu-ral, гц-ral, din-ner, mar-ry, dis-ap-pear, speak-ing,
writ-ing, play-ing, walk-ing, stand-ing, pas-sing, break-fast, po-ta-toes, to-rna-
toes, cof-fee, cab-bage, ba-na-nas, ber-ries, pud-ding, pears, beer, shop-pmg,
iron-ing, house-work, mis-take, fish-ing

5. an aim for it; a blacked eye; not a tall; that stuff; I saw her eyes; the way
to cut it; I saw the meat; white shoes; might rain; keeps ticking; grade A



Exercises p. 136

1. лишенный помощи, неотчужденный, неизменный, невооруженный,
неаспирированный, нечистый, противоциклонный, антинациональный, не­
уплата, иногородний, без остановок, бывший министр, вновь открывать,,
реорганизовать, перепаковать, оплаченный заранее, писать с орфографиче­
скими ошибками, неправильное применение, плохое правление, неправильно,
цитировать, положить не на то место, одетый слишком просто, младший офи­
цер, малонаселенный, вице-адмирал, вице-консул, предыстория, ультрасов­

2. красивый, старомодный, злой (раздражительный), рассеянный, с не­
покрытой головой, домашнего изготовления

4. яблоня, свидетель, рассвет, день рождения, овчарка, наволочка,,
школьник, чемодан, расписание, чернильница, прическа, домашняя хозяйка,,
всё, камин, (радио)вещание, авторучка, любой

5. бабочка, вновь прибывший, растяпа, кузнец, мужское пальто (ши­
нель), самолет, василек, соусник, масленка, закладка для книг

6. классная доска — черная доска; дрозд — черная птица; сейф — проч*
ная коробка; переутомиться — сверх работы (задания); лютик — желтая
чашка; высокий комод (бокал на высокой ножке) — высокий мальчик

Control Tasks p. 188

1. lair-raid, Ibirdcage, Icoalmine, Iteapot, Iwashstand, Imail-bag, ldance-|rnu-
sic, (grandfather, I hand | writing, Ishop [keeper, Uadybird, loffice-boy, Iwaiting-room,
I dinner-1 jacket, Itape rejcorder, I labour exchange, IgrornidUloor, Iknee-ldeep, Icross-
Iquestion, Iflat-lfooted, Ishop-lwindow, hot-iwater-|bottle, waste-lpaper-jbasket,
Ipost-lgraduate, Ivice-1 chancellor, Isecondhand

The reduction of consonants clusters


The reduction of some consonant clusters was established long ago.

1) The initial [w, k, g] may be dropped.

e.g. write [raIt], know [nqu], gnat [nxt]

2) The medial [t] or [d] are dropped in a cluster of three consonants.

e.g. listen [ lIsn], soften [ sOfn], Wednesday [ wenzdI]

3) The final [b] is dropped in the cluster [mb].

e.g. lamb [lxm], dumb [dAm]

In other cases of recent formation the elided forms are typical only of rapid colloquial speech. In the following examples the elided sound is still pronounced in careful, precise speech, cf. often [Ofn] or [ Oftqn].

In present-day English the reduction of clusters continues to take place.

The plosives [t] or [d] in the clusters [st, ft, St, nd, ld, rd, Dd, vd] in final position when followed by a word with an initial consonant are often reduced in rapid speech.

e.g. last time [ la:s taIm], mashed potatoes [ mxSt pqteItqP, next day [ neks deI], old man [ qul mxn]

Word final clusters of plosives or affricates [t] or [d], [pt, kt, Ct, bd, gd, dG] may lose the final alveolar plosive when the following word begins with a consonant.

e.g. kept quiet [ kep kwaIqt], lagged behind [ lxg bIhaInd]

The alveolar [t] of the negative -n’t is often reduced before a consonant.

e.g. You mustn’t do it. [ju mAsn du: It]

When [t] or [d] occur between two other plosives they are never heard.

e.g. locked gate [ lOk geIt], strict teacher [ strIk ti:tSq]

[h] may be dropped in the following monosyllabes when non-initial and unstressed: have, has, had; he, him, his, her; who.

e.g. Tell him he is wanted. [ tel Im Iz wOntId]

but: He’s wanted. [hIz wOntId]


Weak Forms

Each of the following examples contains one or more of the words which often have weak forms. Transcribe the examples phonetically, showing the stressed syllables and the weak (or strong!) forms of those words:

They came to the door. There were two of them.
What are you surprised at? She is as old as the hills.
She has an uncle and a cousin. I shall be angry.
Who will meet him at the airport? I will.
What is her phone number? What does that matter?
I would like some tea. Well, make some.
What has John come for? For his saw that you borrowed.
What can I do? More than I can.
He was pleased, wasn’t he? Of course he was.
When am I going to get it? I am not sure.
I have taken it from the shelf. Yes, I thought you had.
They had already read it. But so had I.

Rhythm Units

Practise the following examples, beating the rhythm of the stressed syllables as you go and varying the lengths of the syllables so as to keep the stress groups equal in length. Mark a stress group with a straight line and a rhythm unit with a wavy line first acccording to semantic tendency and then according to enclitic tendency:

Take it home. Take it to John. Take it to Johnson.
Light the fire. Lighting the fire. He was lighting the fire.
He was most amusing. He was very amusing.  
John was late. Jenny was late. Jennifer was late.
He’s just ten. He’s just seven. He’s just seventy.
It’s a hard job. It’s a tricky job. It’s a difficult job.
It was a really good meal. It was a really pleasant meal. It was a really excellent meal.
He plays very well. He’s playing very well. He’s playing it very well.
You did it rather well. You did it rather better. You did it rather cleverly.


I. Practise saying the following:

Before [p, b, m]    
[p] replaces [t]: right place
white bird
not me
raIp pleIs
waIp bз:d
nOp mi:
[b] replaces [d]: hard path
good boy
good morning
ha:b pa:q
gub bOI
gub mO:nIN
[m] replaces [n]: gone past
gone back
ten men
gOm pa:st
gOm bxk
tem men
Before [k, g]    
[k] replaces [t]: white coat
that girl
waIk kqut
Dxk gз:l
[g] replaces [d]: bad cold
red gate
bxg kquld
reg geIt
[N] replaces [n]: one cup
main gate
wAN kAp
meIN geIt
Before [S, j]    
[S] replaces [s]: nice shoes
this year
naIS Su:z
[Z] replaces [z]: those shops
where’s yours
DquZ SOps
wFqZ jO:z
[st] stop: last time
fast bus
la:s taIm
fa:s bAs
nasal: best man
first night
bes mxn
fз:s naIt
friction: West side
best friend
wes saId
bes frend
[ft] stop: lift boy
stuffed chicken
lIf bOI
stAf tSIkIn
nasal: soft mattress
left knee
sOf mxtrqs
lef ni:
friction: left shoe
soft snow
lef Su:
sOf snqu
[nd] nasal: blind man
kind nurse
blaIn mxn
kaIn nWs
weak stop: tinned beans
stand guard
tIn bi:nz
stxn ga:d
[md] nasal: skimmed milk
he seemed nice
skIm mIlk
hi: si:m naIs
weak stop: it seemed good
he climbed back
It si:m gud
hi: klaIm bxk

II. Transcribe the following passage phonetically and find the words which might have assimilation.

I have needed some new bookshelves for a long time. So during my holiday I decided to tackle the job myself. Not that I am very clever with my hands but it did not seem too difficult and as I had already said that we could not afford to go away I thought it would be prudent not to spend money having it done professionally. I bought the wood at the local handicraft shop and I had plenty of screws, but I found that my old saw, which had been left behind by the previous owner of the house, was not good enough and I decided to buy a new one. That was my first mistake, my second was to go to the biggest ironmonger in London and ask for a saw. You would think it was simple, wouldn’t you, to buy a saw. But it is not. I said to the man behind the counter, “I want a saw.” He was a nice man and did his best for me. “Yes, sir, what kind of saw?” “Oh, a saw for cutting wood.” “Yes, sir, but we have fifteen different kinds for different jobs. What did you want it for?” I explained about my bookshelves and felt like an ignorant fool in a world of experts, which was true. He saw that I was a novice and was very kind. He told me what I should need and advised me to have a ladies’ size. “Easier to manage for the beginner, sir.” He was not being nasty just helpful and I was grateful to him. He also sold me a book on woodwork for schoolboys and I’ve been reading it with great interest. The next time I am on holiday I shall start on the shelves.

III. Find the place of assimilation in the following words and word clusters and state the type of assimilation and what it affects.

Small; twenty; did you; give me; handkerchief; does she; swop; could you; about them; I have to; kind man; last time.


I. Practise saying the following examples:

friends just now

Westminster next day

sounds last chance

exactly just one

mostly cold lunch

kindness first light

friendship cold smile

last night old man

next stop

II. Drop [t], [d] in consonant clusters and [h] from unstressed pronouns and auxiliaries within an utterance:

1. He looks too old for his age.

2. Did he lift his handbag by himself?

3. When I just saw him he was a handsome man.

4. What did he take for breakfast?

5. I’ll cut some sandwiches for us.

6. How long did it take him to reach the station?

7. What did his wife do when he entered the kitchen?

8. His wife gave him his breakfast.

9. Is he going with us?

10. Don’t you think she might have gone home?

11. Both her father and mother are teachers.

12. The landscape doesn’t change much in winter.

13. I saw her grandmother last night.

14. The old man is keen on gardening.

15. I rang him up last night but there wasn’t anyone in.


Every language has melody in it; no language is spoken on the same musical note all the time. The voice goes up and down and the different notes of the voice combine to make tunes. In English the tune belongs to the word group. We can say a word group definitely or we can say it hesitantly, we can say it angrily or kindly, we can say it with interest or without interest, and these differences are largely made by the tunes we use: the words do not change their meaning but the tune we use adds something to the words, and what it adds is the speaker’s feelings at that moment; this way of using tunes is called intonation.

Intonation is a complex unity of speech melody, sentence-stress, voice quality (timbre), speech tempo, rhythm.

These features vary in their relevance. Speech melody remains the most central component of intonation but all the other components are included into the definition of intonation too.

English intonation is English; it is not the same as the intonation of any other language. Some people imagine that intonation is the same for all languages, but this is not true. You must learn the shapes of the English tunes, and these may be quite different from the normal tunes of your own language; and you must learn the meanings of the English tunes too, because they are important.

Date: 2021-12-24; view: 2124

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